We utilize our earnings to create impactful business grants and scholarships.

Cultural and Creative arts – Everything you need to know under 1 minute













Performance Objectives

At the end of this module, students should be able to:

  1. Define Nigerian  Traditional Art.
  2. List types of Nigerian Traditional Art.
  3. Identify places of origin of each art.
  4. State functions of Nigerian Traditional Art.

















Traditional art is a type of art that is part of the culture of a certain people. In most cases, traditional art refersvto skills and knowledge passed down through generations from elder ones to young ones, masters to apprentices

But from an academic point of view, traditional art is what we call Classical Art. This is is the type of art that emerged from the period of Rennaissance and Illuminism about what art should mean to society at large. These ideas emerged from ancient times and lasted up to the 19th century and beyond.

Nigerian traditional art, also known as indigenous art, is a type of art that is part of the Nigerian-Biafran culture and tradition, from ancient times up to present or ancient times. Nigerian sets encompasses a variety of visual arts such as wood carvings, sculpture, pottery, weavings, tattoo, paintings (wall, shrine and cave paintings)



Nigeria as a country with diverse cultures and traditions, is blessed over 250 ethnic groups. Each of these ethnic groups has a rich history of traditional art which dates back to hundreds of years ago. Below are some traditional Nigerian arta.

  1. Nok Arts. 




  1. Igbo Ukwu Art. 




 iii.  Ife Art.





  1. Benin Art















The various Nigerian traditional arts have characteristic features that differentiate one from the other.



NOK art is believed to be to be one of the earliest evidences of metalworks in Africa. The people of ancient Nok ate known to be skilled in artistic craftsmanship, especially in the areavos sculpture. Nok art produced ornaments like bracelets and earlobes necklaces.

The characteristics of Nok arts are listed as follows:

  1. The heads of Nok terracottas are made of coarse clay.
  2. The eyes of Nok terracottas are triangular with perforated pupils, noses, mouths, and ears combined to depict men and women with vold and abstract features.

iii. Female figures have elaborately detailed hairstyles and jewelries that adorn most of the figures.

  1. The figures of Nok terracottas have geometric shapes.
  2. They are mostly terracotta sculptures of human heads, human figures and animals.




The traditional Igbo religion includes belief in a creator God also known as Chukwu or Chinese, an earth goddess (Ala) and several other deities and spirits as well as ancestors who protect their living descendants. Theses traditional religion are central to the ancient Igbo Ukwu art and culture.

One of the earliest known bronze art works in sub-Saharan Africa are Igbo Ukwu art works.

Produced through the use of “lost was” or “hollow cast”, we find objects like bronze pendant ornaments vin the diem animal heads elephants and rams on bronze pots.

The characteristics of Igbo Ukwu art are listed as follows.

  1. Igbo Ukwu arts hav fine decorations on the surface with geometric designs of parallel lines, triangles, circles and raised dots.
  2. Igbo Ukwu bronze works are produced through cirw -perdue techniques.

iii. Igbo Ukwu arts are used as objects of traditional funeral and worship.

iii. Insects such as flies, beetles and grasshoppers are decorated on Igbo Ukwu bronze works.

  1. Igbo Ukwu arts are overlaid with fine threads, pellets and spirals.



The historical importance of Ife art works lie in their highly developed in their distictive sculptural style, described alternatively as naturalistic, portrait-like and humanistic.  It is known that the artist of ancient Ile-Ife developed a highly naturalistic sculptural tradition in stone, terracotta, brass and copper, and created a style that was previously unknown in Africa at that time.

The characteristics of Ife art are listed listed as follows.

  1. Ife art are terracotta figures.
  2. Ife artworks have stylized tribal marks on the face.

iii. Ife terracottas are linked to Noble and royal rituals and ceremonial events.

  1. Ife bronze castings are produced the cire Perdue lost was techniques.
  2. Ife terracottas show elaborate details of eye lashes without eyebrows.
  3. Some of Ife bronze heads are decorated with beads on the the neck.
  4. Some male heads of Ife bronze head are bald or caped.

viii. Female figures have detailed and beautiful hairstyles.



Benin art is also known as court art  because it was discovered at the king’s palace and produced for the court of the  Oba of Benin. Benin art is composed mainly of bronze, ivory and wood. These works of arts are of great significance to the Benin people, especially for historical references. The Benin art work is also for cultural and ritual purposes.

The characteristics of Benin art are listed as follows.

  1. Benin art works are usually terracotta figures.
  2. Benin art have a prominent mark on the forehead.

iii.Benin arts are semi-naturalistic.

  1. Benin art s are mostly royal figures.
  2. Benin arts are highly decorative with beads on necks and and ankles.
  3. Benin sculptures are produced using the cire Perdue techniques.



IGBO ISAIAH: This art was discovered by Isaiah Anozie and findings seem to be objects abandoned in a hut which collapsed over them. In 1938, the art of Igbo Ukwu was brought to the attention of the Department of Antiquity. He claimed that as he was digging a well in his compound and discovered artifacts like bronze heads, bowls, staff heads vessels in form of snail.

Professor Thurstan Shaw (archaeologist) dug the present site now known as Igbo Isaiah and discovered a lot of art works, water pot, large bowls, elephant head ornaments, altar stand, double egg, necklace, staff heads and beads.

IGBO RICHARDS: Richard discovered the site. His

Functions of Nigerian Traditional Art

  1.     They are used for historical purposes.
  2.     They are used for domestic purposes
  3.     They are means of livelihood for the craftsmen.
  4.     They play religious and ritualistic roles.
  5.     They are used for social purposes
  6.     They help in enforcing community authorities.
  7.     They hold the cultural heritage of a society.

Why do we preserve art works?

  1.     Art works are preserved because art and culture are inseparable.
  2.     Art is a mouth-piece or a window that shows and explains the culture of the people in a particular society.
  3.     Art helps in keeping the cultural heritage of the people.
  4.     Art serves as a bridge between the past and the future.
  5.     Art helps people to know their history, the mistakes of the past and the solution for the future.








At the end of this module, students should be able to:

  1. explain meaning of contemporary Nigerian arts.
  2. Mention names of some contemporary Nigerian artists.
  3. Discuss their contributions towards sustainable of the society.
  4. identify some prominent works by contemporary Nigerian artists.
  5. discuss how income can be generated through contemporary arts.
























Nigerian Comtemporary artists are artists that belong to our modern generation. These are artists of our time. Some of them the field of art in Nigeria. They lay the foundation and see to the survival of art through various personal efforts and group efforts in producing classical work of carts.

Some of these attended formal educational training in school, while others attended informal training workshops stem of education. These artists specialized in Studio Art Pioneering, Art Education, Performing Art and Craft Arts.

AINA ONABOLU (Painter and Art Educator)

He is the foremost Nigerian artist, an art teacher a painter. He was born in 1882 in Ijebu-Ode; he went through the through the primary and secondary education. In 1900, he on his own started practising art to contrast the western opinion that Africa as its art. This was done while he was an Nigerian government in the marine and the customs department. He travelled to England, and Paris in 1920 to study art and obtained diploma in art in 1922. On Nigeria he persuaded the British colonial government to include Fine Art in the school curriculum and volunteered to be the first art teacher. He taught in some schools like the King’s College and C.M.S. Grammar School, Lagos. He further convinced the colonial government to employ more expatriate art teachers which include Kenneth C. Murray and Dennis Duerden.

Aina Onabolu contributed so much to art education in Nigeria; he created the platform through which art education easily spread in the country. His other area of specialization includes portrait painting. His works include

  1.     Painting of Adam and Eve
  2.     Portrait of the Right Rev. O. Oluwole
  3.     Portrait of Mrs. Spencer Savage
  4.     Portrait of Chief Shapara.

As a reward for his contribution toward art education in Nigeria, he was appointed a Member of the Order of British Empire in 1956. He had a fulfilled life and died in 1963 at the age of 81.

BEN ENWONWU (Painter and Sculptor)

He was born in 1921 at Onitsha in Anambra State. He first earnt the traditional carving techniques from his father who was a carver. He used to carve for masquerades and other traditional events e.g. age grade dance, hunter dance etc.

He attended Government College. Ibadan and Umuahia and studied under Kenneth C. Murray who introduced him to modern techniques in art including drawing, painting, designing etc. He travelled to the United Kingdom and the (United States to study art and returned to Nigeria in 1948. He was commissioned to do various art works especially sculptures in public places in Nigeria, some of which includes

  1.     The statue of Sango at Electric Power Headquarters, Marina, Lagos.
  2.     Anyanwu at National Museum, Onikan, Lagos.
  3.     The Evangelist in the Onitsha Cathedral Mosericist
  4.     Bronze statue of Queen Elizabeth II at the old House of Representative, Lagos.
  5.     The Risen Christ in the Protestant Chapel of the University of Ibadan.
  6.     The Six wood figures in front of the Daily Mirror Office, High Holborn, London.

Apart from sculptures, Ben Enwonwu also paints; h s style is a blend of abstract and naturalism.

JIMOH AKOLO (Painter and Art Educator)

He was born in 1935 in a town called Egbe in Kogi State. lie had his primary education in Egbe and attended Government College, Keffi where he had an encounter with the renowned expatriate art teacher Mr. Dennis Duerden. He later went for a diploma at the former Nigerian College of Arts, Science and Technology, Zaria between 1957 and 1961. He is the first famous artist from the old northern states of Nigeria. He was commissioned to do various painting for the northern government. He also travelled to the United States for higher degree in media resources. I Ic was appointed a lecturer at the Ahmadu Bello University, mum, lie has participated in various exhibitions and won awards both local and international. Some of his works include

Yoruba dancer, talking drum, hued drummer, Fulani herdsmen etc.

ADEBAYO YUSUF GRILLO (Painter and Mosericist)

He was born in Lagos in 1934 and started out as a self-inspired young artist. After his secondary education, he desired to pursue a career in any form of art or painting hence he found himself working at the drawing office of Federal Survey in Lagos. He joined an art club organized by the British Council. He under studied the professional in the department and gained enough mastery to attend a higher institution.

In 1956, he enrolled at the Nigeria (College of Arts, Science and Technology, Zaria and graduated with a diploma in painting.

He also studied art education in Britain and awarded a diploma in 1961. Grub style is highly expressive; he paints everyday life of the people by depicting images in a simplified geometric shape. This he gracefully executes in murals and mosaics, he is a teacher of high repute as he has mentored many art students in the Yaba College of Technology, Lagos.

Some of his works include

  1.     Mother and Child
  2.     Two Yoruba women
  3.     Agidigbo
  4.     Road walker, The Evangelist.

BRUCE ONBRAKPEYA (Painter and Art Educator)

He was born in 1932 in Agbaha Otor near Ughelli of Delta State. His elementary education was in Benin and attended secondary school in Sapele. He started his training in art by attending the former Nigerian College of Arts, Science and technology, Zaria and was awarded a diploma in 1961; he later obtained an art teachers certificate. His terms and ideas :ii muted in. African culture, rhythms and folkiores. He log technique called plasto-cast which involves the use of melted plastics or cut out lino in relief form printing processes. His prints are unique as well as the lino-cut design itself. Apart from print works, he painted various mural in Lagos and Ibadan. His works have been exhibited severally in

Nigeria and overseas. Some of his works appear as book cover designs and as illustrations in notable books in Nigeria.

His famous works others include:

  1.     Ufeto
  2.     Ahwaire and Iiwitiii
  3.     Otorogba
  4.     Erhako etc.

AKINOLA LASEKAN (Painter and C|aertoonist)

He was born in 1916 in Owo, Ondo State and had his elementary education at St. Patrick Central School, Owo. He started practicing art on his own and later went to Lagos for better exposure and training. During this time, he entered for many art competitions and got awards. He worked as illustrator and graphic designer for the CMS Bookshop in Lagos. He later decided to travel abroad for a higher study, which took him to the Hammer Smith School of Art in United Kingdom in 1945. On his return, he became a professional painter, a cartoonist, a graphic and textile designer. He was versatile in designing and illustrations.

He was a Famous cartoonist for the West Pic Pilot Newspaper. He also picked up teaching jobs at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka and University of Ife (now Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife) he was a classical realist and painted everyday life activity ‘the people using naturalistic painting in bright colours. He was elected a fellow of the royal society of An in London 1962.

His works include

  1.     Market Scene
  2.     A Yoruba boy
  3.     A Yoruba girl
  4.     A Nigerian constable under colonial rule.

WANGBOJE IREIN SOLOMON (Graphic Artist, Painter, Art Educator)

IreinWanghoje as popularly called was born in 1930 in a town called Avbiosi near Benin in Edo State. He attended Edo College, Benin City and his formal training in art began with the Nigerian College of Arts, Science and Technology, Zaria where he obtained a diploma in Fine Art. He furthered his studies by going to the United States to pursue his degree and higher degree in art. He consequently came back with a Master degree in graphic design and painting in 1963 and a doctorate degree in I ‘)6X. He was the founder and director of Ori-Olokun Art workshop at the University of Ife; he lectured at the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria as well as the University of Benin. He was a prolific writer of well-illustrated art books and astute art educator. He was a member of Society of Nigeria lists and International Society for Education through art.

Some of the artworks he made before his death in 1997 includes

  1.     Romance of head load
  2.     Two women
  3.     Music maker
  4.     Desert journey etc.

KOLADE OSINOWO (Painter and Art Educator)

He was born in 1948 in Ikorodu, Lagos and had his primary and secondary education also in Lagos. He started exhibiting artistic talents as a youngster and further his career by attending the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria to study Fine Art. He graduated as a painter and perfected his styles and strokes. He taught art in King’s College, Lagos and also at the Yaba College of Technology. He has participated in various exhibition and his works are in great places both in Nigeria and overseas. He has contributed so much to the development of art in Nigeria.

His works amongst others include

  1.     Durbar
  2.     Agemo festivals etc.

LAMIDI FAKEYE (Traditional Carver)

He was born in 1925 in Ila-Orangun, Osun State amd had his primary education in the same town. Though he was born to a family of traditional wood carver, he did not attach any importance to the trade initially. However in 1948, he enrolled as an apprentice in a carving training centre organized by the Catholic Mission in Oye- Ekiti under a popular carver called Bamidele Areogun. For three years, he learnt modem style of carving and the peculiarities of traditional techniques. He later perfected his skill while working in Father ‘0’ Mahoney workshop in Ondo in 1955. To establish a great career, he moved to Ibadan to set up a carving workshop and he excelled tremendously. His works were sought after by religious Organization, the old western state government and private organization.

By 1962, he travelled w Paris on a French scholarship to study stone carving and cement sculpture. He also visited England and the United States before he returned in 1963. He was also appointed to teach Yoruba carving techniques in Western Michigan University in Kalamazoo, USA in 1966.

He made a lot of door panels, sculptures with the hand in wood, furniture, gates, house post etc.


Ladi Kwali was born in 1924 in Kwali village of Niger State. She was a traditional potter who trained locally in her village where pottery was a famous craft. Fate brought her to an expatriate potter called Michael Cardew, who taught her better techniques in pottery. A pottery center was established in a place which is presently withinA buja. She took over the management of the center after Cardew and produced more works as well as giving training in modern pottery techniques. She was an excellent potter with great skills. She had represented the country in Europe and America showcasing her skill and African creativity. For her contribution to the growth of Nigerian traditional craft in modern times, she was honored with a doctorate degree by the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria and also awarded with a national award of Officer of the Order of Niger (OON) in 1977.

She died in 1984 and the Abuja pottery centre was named after her.


ERHABOR EMOKPAE (Painter and Sculptor)

A painter and sculptor was born in 1934 in Benin city Edo State in 1934. He attended Benin Government School and Western Boys High School Benin. He started his carrier training in Yaba Technical Institute Lagos. He worked for a number of companies after graduation, such organization are Ministry of Information Enugu, Graphic Designer and Advertiser. He participated in one man and joint exhibition in Nigeria and abroad (West Germany, London, Brazil etc).

He was commissioned to decorate the National Theatre, Iganmu Lagos. lie executed a mural for the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs, Victoria Island Lagos. Most of his works include: The portrait of Queen Amina of Zaria, portrait of Herbert Macau lay. Oduduwa, The Acrobat, lya Ibeji etc.

Before his death in 1984, he was honoured with a national award of OON.

UCHE OKEKE (Painter and Art Educator)

He was born in 1933 in Kafachan, Kaduna State, though he is an Ibo man from Akwa, Anambra State. He attended Primary School in Kafanchan and Onitsha, and secondary school in Orlu. He started his career in Kafanchan as a school artist. He was at the Nigerian College of Art, Science and Technology, Zaria between 1957-1961 and got diploma in Fine Art. For further training, he travelled to west Germany to study the techniques of mosaic and stained glass between 1962 and 1963. On his return he engaged himself in several works of art, he actively took part in several exhibitions in Nigeria and abroad, Most of his works connotes African mythologies and folktales, the Igbo folktales expressed in Ulism is common in his works. He was a complete Art practitioner “nd he had great interest in theatre, stage designs, costumes, poems etc. He was an illustrator of books one (i which in Chinua Achebe’s Things fall Apart’. lie taught in the University of Nigeria, Nsukka for several years and later became a professor in art faculty.

His works include: Almajiri, Beautiful Nza Unity, Maiden’s cry etc.

AFI EKONG (Painter)

She is another woman of note among the great artists of Nigeria. She attended Duke town school and Christ Church School in Calabar. Her great love for art made her to study fashion designing at the Technical College Oxford U.K. She also attended Saints Martins School of Art London and Central School of Art in Holiborn also in London.

She became a painter and did a little theoretical work on sculptures. She was an Art collector and a gallery owner. Her paintings are very bright and colourful, these include: Ekpe dancers, the meeting, the seeker etc.

TAIWO OLANIYI (Theater Artist and Painter)

Popularly known as Twins 77, he “as born in 1947 in Kabba Kebi 1ate. He is a gifted musician, dancer and poet. He got his professional training at the Mbari ‘Abayo Workshop for Artisan, Artist and Artiste in Osogbo. The organizers: Susan Wenger and Uli Bier encouraged the participants id inspired them greatly to make use of their talents in the most lucrative ways by exposing them to modern techniques of making artworks, Twins 77 turned out to be a successful multi-talented person, he could sing, dance, draw, paint, design cloths and organize several African shows and carnivals. His works are generally abstractive and imaginative. He has participated in several one man and joint exhibition in Nigeria and abroad.



He was born in Ikere Ekiti, Ekiti State in 1945 and started his carrier training at Yaba Tech, Lagos. He further went to A.B.U. Zaria where he graduated with a bachelor’s degree specializing in painting. He even won the prize of the best student in his set. He continued his education by going to Indiana University Bloomington U.S.A and returned with a decorated degree mart history.

He worked with Daily times as a cartoonist and illustrated a number of books. Though an art critic, he still participated in several one-man exhibitions and joint exhibitions. His works include: Orange seller, Sallah day, EKo re, Maroko, Ariya, Milkmaid, hunter and wife.

FELIX IDUBOR (Sculptor and Art Educator)

He was born in 1925 in Benin city, Edo State. After his elementary school, he joined the Benin Carvers Association and understudied their styles and techniques. He improved on his career training by traveling to United Kingdom to study at the Royal College of professional sculptor with a great knowledge of African and modern techniques. He was an art teacher at Edo College Benin City and sculpture instructor at Yaba Technical College. He opened an art training centre in Lagos and held many exhibitions in Nigeria and abroad.

Some of his works are carved head in marble, carved doors, carved chest presented to Queen Elizabeth, Mother Africa in front of National Theatre Iganmu, Lagos.

ABAYOMI BARBER (Sculptor, Painter and Art Educator)

He was born in 1934 in Ile-Ife, after primary and secondary education. He went to Lagos and attended Yaba Technical Institute Lagos and Central School of art and crafts London. He gathered experiences from Mancini and Tozer Limited. Oscar Nemon’s and St. James palace while in United Kingdom. He later became a naturalist and realist. Most of his scuiptureal piece shows naturalism. His works in painting and sculpture include: Bust of Oba Adesoji Aderemi, bust of General Muritala Mohammed, Sir Winston Churchil, Portrait ofAihaji Shehu Shagari etc.


He was born in Osogbo, Osun State in 1934, a naturally talented painter who started his career training in art by enrolling in the Mbari Mbayo art workshop in Osogbo. He developed a form of painting by combining bead arrangement on board with oil background. He did a series of work in etching. His mosaic works has been exhibited severally, some of which now adorn the walls of many private homes and public places. Some of his paintings include: Faces, Osanyi, Dyers, Zaria city, Market women, African family etc.



He was born in Idumuje Ugboko, Delta State in 1935. He went to primary and secondary school in Benin and was initially attracted to art by some wall decorations in his father’s palace. He was further encouraged by his art teacher in secondary school and practised a series of drawings and paintings. He moved to the Nigerian College of Arts, Science and Technology; Zaria and graduated as a painter. In 1962 he traveled to Paris France and study Decor, Fresco painting and stenographic Art. Through his working experiences, he also gained some knowledge of architecture, industrial designs, stage design etc.

His works featured in the Nigerian Independence exhibition. Other exhibition are at Mbari Gallery in Ibadan. His works are also exhibited in France and Germany.

Demas was a theatre designer and technical theatre lecturer at University of Ibadan, he also has a private training centre. His works include Adam and Eve. The Philosopher boy, Mother and Child, the bathing women etc.

He was born in 1957 in Ikoic-Ekiti. Ekiti State, after his primary and post-primary education, he began his career training at University of Ife (now Obafemi Awolowo University) and graduated with a bachelor’s degree in Fine Art. He also proceeded to the University of Benin and got a master’s degree in print-making. He is a professional print-maker, aprofihic writer of books and joumals whose great knowledge of contemporary African art has made popular among art critics and art admires. He lectured at Adeyemi College of Education Ondo, Ondo State and was head of department, he was also dean of faculty, Technical Education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka Yaba Lagos. He is an important member of art associations in Nigeria and he has participated in several group and solo exhibitions.

Deputy Provost Federal College of Education Akoka, Yaba and later became the Provost of Federal College of Education Osiele, Ogun State. He is a member of the Nigerian Society of Artist (SNA).

OGUNDELE RUFUS (Painter and Theater Artist)

He was born in Oshogbo in 1947. He was a naturally talented artist who began a professional career in art by attending the Oshogbo summer school between 1962- 1963. This session was conducted by Dennis Williams who discovered his great talent in painting. He was invited by Uli Beiser to take another session of training in graphics art, during this time, he developed a unique style of painting in shades of purple.

Apart from being a painter, Rufus also engaged in acting and drama directing. He was also involved in prints. His aray of knowledge gave him the opportunity to be appointed as the curator of Ori Olokun gallery in Ile Ife. His works have been exhibited in Nigeria, Ghana, London, Washington, Berlin and Amsterdam.

Some of these works include sacrifice to Ogun and prayer to Ogun

KUNLE JEREMIAN ADELEYE (Sculptor and Graphic Artist)

Kunle was born in 1960 at Ilaro between 1968 and 1983. He had his post secondary school academic career in Federal College of Education, Pankshin, Plateau State (1987 – 1990) and Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

Adekunle Adeleye is a very versatile artist who is a sculptor and a graphic designer. He also does several craft works.

He is an active artist that has produced various functional art pieces for personalities in Nigeria. He has taken part in several group exhibitions in Nigeria. He was won many laurels including 2nd National School/Teachrs Art competition NCE category and Cyprain Ihejia prize for the best final year student in sculpture, ABU, Zaria, 1995.

Adekunle, who is and experienced teacher practices his art in Abeokuta. He had executed many art projects. His works includes: The Unpaid Head-Labour, Sculpture Garden Zaria, Gbedu Drummer, Vibration etc.


Contemporary Nigerian art started with Late Aina Onabolu, through whom art education was introduced to Nigerian Educational System. Several Artist had been trained within and outside Nigeria and their contribution to the development of the subject and profession in general cannot be ignored.

Each of these contemporary artist had been a source of inspiration to younger artist today. Their works and achievements stand out in public places within and outside Nigeria. Some of them had gained recognition through awards by the government and organisations worldwide.


  1. Who was Nigeria first traditional artist?
  2. Mention the first two schools where art was thought in Nigeria.
  3. Explain briefly the biography of these following artist:
  4.                     Aina Onabolu
  5.                   Ben Enwonwu

iii.                 Lamidi Fakeye

  1.                 Ladi Kwali
  2.                   Yusuf Grillo






Patterns are created by the arrangement of motifs in repeated sequence. Patterns are created on cloth, paper, walls, carpet etc.

are the units of design; they can be created from various forms e.g. insects etc. Described below are the types of motifs.

MOTIFS are the units of design; they can be created from various forms e.g. insects etc. described below are the types of motifs.

  1.     GEOMETRIC MOTIF: This is created with the use of shapes e.g. rectangle, square, circle, triangle etc. two or more shapes can be composed to make a motif. Geometric motifs are good on fabric, carpet, table cover etc.
  2.   PLANT/FLORAL MOTIF: This has a range of object to copy from e.g. plant, trees, mountains, rock etc.
  3.   AQUATIC MOTIF: This deals with the sea and sea creatures; fish, crab shells, boat etc.
  4.   ANIMAL MOTIF: This motif depicts the wild life by using aquatic, insects and land animals to form a pattern.
  5.   ABSTRACT MOTIF: Unrealistic and non-representational images can be created by the artist and used as motif pattern.

Any of these motifs and ire can be arranged as desired by the artist to create a pattern which will then be used for the design. This arrangement of motif is commonly referred to as repeat pattern.

LINE MOTIF: This is the use of line strokes composed together to form motif.

Traditional Motif

This is the use of traditional symbols on objects to form a motif e.g. Traditional music instruments, Traditional beads with crown, Local pots etc.


Some of these repeat patterns are listed below:

  1.     Simple repeat pattern
  2.     Half drop repeat pattern
  3.     Full drop repeat pattern
  4.     Mirror repeat pattern
  5.     Diamond repeat pattern
  6.     Double mirror repeat pattern


Motif is an important element in pattern design which translates into full design after several arrangement in a sequence.

This art is commonly practised  textile design art. Examples of this motif can be seen on Ankara fabric, Lace fabric, Wallpaper and Sanitary wares (Tiles)


  1.     What is a motif?
  2.     Mention and explain four types of motifs.
  3.     Mention three types of repeated pattern.





Exhibition is simply the display of artworks in a room, hail or open space for appreciation and sometimes sales.

During an exhibition, other objects of importance aside from artwork may also be displayed to educate and to tell stories and present better cultural values.

Exhibition can be organized by schools and colleges or by private organizations, sponsors, collectors and critics of art. For successful exhibition. the following must be considered.

  1.     COLLECTIONS: Arts of different forms are generally collected through different means; works may be brought in by the artists and submitted to the custodian.
  2.     LABELLING: Artworks ‘we marked or tagged to distinguish them from one another in terms of artists, forms, style, media etc.

iii.    FRAMING: Paintings and other two-dimensional works are framed to add value to them and make their display effective.

  1.   FIXING: Some works get to the custodian with some fault, these fault must be fixed e.g. the handle of a broken ceramic cup must be re-attached and polished before display.
  2.     CATEGORIZING: Works are grouped according to forms or media.
  3.   DESIGNING OF SPACE: Organizers should know how to maximize the available space either room or hall. Works should be displayed such that there will be enough space for the guest to move around.


  1.   Gallery: This is a house, apartment or building for housing, acquiring and display of art works for visitors, viewing, admiration and possible purchase. An artist can send or rent a gallery for exhibition of his/her works. E.g Nike Art Gallery
  2.     Museum: This is a house, apartment or building for housing, acquiring and display of art works for visitors viewing. Amuseum can design a section within for display and sales of modem art works. E.g National Museum Onikan, Lagos.
  3.     Public Place: This is a special venue designed for staging any social activities like parties, conferences. It can be rented by an artist for exhibition of art works. E.g Events Hall.


The beauty of producing art works is to showcase it to people for appreciation or sales. Staging an art exhibition is one important way of doing that.



  1.     What is Art Exhibition?
  2.     Why is exhibition important for an artist?
  3.     Mention three bodies that can organize an art exhibition.
  4.     Mention and explain six organizing art exhibitions.
  5.     Mention and explain places where art exhibition can held.





Lettering is the art of constructing letters of the alphabets and iI s to fbrmwords and sentences.

Lettering generally is a way through which writing is made possible. It is a form of symbol which when properly arranged makes meaning and informs. The first set of lettering were written by the Egyptian (remember world civilization started in Egypt) this lettering is called Hieroglyphics. It is a shaped form of symbols on clay slab which is allowed to dry, baked and hanged on the wall to give instructions and direction or kept in the archives as diary of past events.

The development of man and knowledge helped in the creation of various types of original ancient fettering: the Arabic, Chinese, Asian, and European.

For the purpose of the class, we shall he studying the English alphabets. This is traceable to the British, Americans, Canadian and other English speaking countries.

Lettering is otherwise called text in graphics design, it is a medium through which important information is passed across to people. Therefore, to effectively inform the people through lettering the letters must be well written i.e.

  1.     It must have good quality
  2.     It must be legible.
  3.     It must have appropriate colour.
  4.     It must be planned and well arranged.
  5.     It must be suitable.

There are several types of letters, some are artistically written, while others are constructed with drawing instruments. The computer has also made it easy to create letterings, fellers on computer are referred to as fonts or typefaces. Some typefaces or fonts are shown below:

Classification/Types of Letters

Uppercase Letters: These are Capital Letters A to Z

Lowercase Letters: These are small letters a to z


Principles/Qualities of a good lettering

Simplicity: The form or character of letters chosen must be simple in appearance.

Legibility: The letters constructed must be readable without any difficulties, simple and arranged in orderly manner without losing its beauty.

Spacing: Adequate spaces must be given between each word or sentences.

See the difference in the hitters, some are casual, formal, exciting, funny etc. The characteristics of the fonts determines what it should be used for while designing. However, among the numerous fonts that can be used by artist, there are four basic typefaces from which most of the letterings are developed from, they are:

  1.     Gothic
  2.     Script
  3.     Serif
  4.     San Serif

Forms of Lettering

BLOCK LETTERING: are created carefully by constructing them using drawing instrument. The main block letters are Gothic and Roman.






SCRIPT LETTERING: are the family of letters that are handwritten, this involved a lot of writing skills, complex styles and angles of writing. Examples are the calligraphy text or pen-writing that comes in different form. The main script letters are the italics and the old English.







It is important to know the parts of a letter, this will help the artist in the description, spacing and construction of each of letter as a design progress.

Apex: This is the tip or the top of a letter e.g. the tip of alphabet “A”

Body: It is the exterior curved part of an alphabet e.g “D”

Counter: It is the interior curved area of an alphabet e.g. “G”

Ascender: It is the upward strokes of a lower case e.g. “d”, “b”, “f”, “h”, “I”, “k”, “I”, “t”

Descender: It is the downward strokes of a lower case e.g. “y”, “g”, “j”, “q”, “p”

Serif: It is a mark across the end of the main stroke of a letter e.g. “N”


As discussed above, letter can be constructed and can also be written artistically, but the purpose of learning in this class, we shall be doing the practical construction of letter. We shall take a simple San serif block letter after which students can practise other types with the assistance of their art teacher.

Materials and tools like paper, pencil, eraser, ruler, compass and drawing board will be required for this exercise.

To construct the letters, students will need to first construct gridlines on which the letterings will be drawn. Gridlines are vertical and horizontal lines running across each other at right angle. Thus creating small boxes of the same size e.g. 0.5 x 0.5cm.

To construct the uppercase of block letter, 5 vertical boxes and 3 horizontal boxes are required.

As letters are constructed in an exercise, students remember to leave a box space between each letter constructed. Note the spaces in the exercise below.

Using your pencil and ruler, copy the upper case of a block letter while the gridlines guide you.

The presence of ascenders and descenders in some lower case will make the number of vertical boxes to 7, while the horizontal boxes remain 3. However, some of the letters without ascenders and descenders can still be drawn within 5 boxes x3 boxes.

Some letters still require more or less boxes on the horizontal line of the gride, such letters as I, M, and W. Check the construction below and see the difference.

The English alphabet most often goes with the Arabic numerals simply referred to as figures. To construct these figures therefore, 5 boxes x3 boxes can also be used, but students should note that figure 1 may also go in 5 boxes x2 boxes.


  1.     The use of drawing instrument is essential accurate and neat construction.
  2.     Gridlines must be drawn to guide to construction.
  3.     There must be a space in between each letter
  4.     Exceptional letters like 1, and W should be given special consideration.



To print on a banner, you will need the following materials:

  1.     Fabric
  2.     Cardboard to make stencil
  3.     Textile ink
  4.     Foam for dabbing
  5.     Graphic knife/blade
  6.     Pencil and eraser
  7.     Masking tape


  1.     Using any of the font/typefaces in the previous pages, construct letters for a given inscription, e.g. Good people, “Great Nation”.
  2.     Cut out the letters in a stencil form.
  3.     Place the cardboard stencil on the fabric already spread on a table and hold with masking tape.
  4.     Using foam, dab ink through the stencil on the fabric.
  5.     After drying in the sun, press with iron and display


This is a form of lettering, group under the script types. It can be described as an art of free hand writing, it is a skill or craft of penmanship.

Calligraphy is an old art of writing. Ancient write up on skin scrolls and parchments are written in calligraphy style, using locally made ink and quill feather. It is otherwise referred to as beautiful writing in the Islamic world and considered to be the most important art since the Arabic text or lettering of their holy book is hand written.

Apart from quill feather, stick can also be carved or shaped to a desired nib or point for writing down information for kings and nobles, for recording special events in a kingdom or an area, for writing down laws guiding the people etc.

In modern times, the art of calligraphy has been improved upon, therefore making it easier and convenient for beginners to learn better and faster. Different types of pens have been invented, namely: fountain, refills, chisel-shapped, flat plate/point etc. can be used to give different effect in writing. Synthetic ink of different colours are also made to write on all forms of paper and texture.

However, improvised pen (shaped sticks or bamboo can be used when real pens are not available)

Pens are delicate tools and can easily get spoilt if it crashed to the ground or not washed immediately after use.

Student calligraphers can start by tying two different grades of pencil together and write with it, legibility and alignment of text are important in calligraphy art. Modern calligraphers who have studied the ancient writing have grouped the arts of calligraphy into different typefaces or font groups. Some typefaces are the gothic, old English, calligra, round-hand, commercial script, marina script, cursive broad pen. Etc.

Any of these can be used to suit a particular purpose of writing either for greeting cards, programmes, certificate, marriage proposals etc.


Writing in calligraphy requires a great skill of writing which can be acquired by learning and constant practising. Since calligraphy is handwriting, certain steps must be taken to achieve a beautiful and neat finishing.

  1.     Using a faint pencil, create margins an all the sides of the paper: top, bottom, left, and right sides.
  2.     Draw horizontal lines from the left margin to the right margin.
  3.     Tilt your pen to 45°and write gracefully, letting your hand rest comfortably on the surface.
  4. Clean off the pencil guidelines.
  5. Make a beautiful border design behind the perimeter margins.


Lettering generally is a form of art used for communication of idea, thoughts and following in a visual form. It is the construction of letters of the alphabets and numbers to form words and sentences. There are two major classification of letters, while numbers remain the same. There are two forms of lettering: Block and Script lettering.

Calligraphy is a stylized form lettering that involves the use of special pen (materials) lo achieve beautiful letter effects. This style of writing required certain steps and constant practice.


  1.     Define Lettering.
  2.     Mention and explain 2 forms of letters.
  3.     State 5 qualities of a good lettering.
  4.     Mention and explain 3 major principles of a good lettering.
  5.     Mention and explain 2 forms of lettering.
  6.     Mention and explain 5 pails of letterings.
  7.     Mention 5 letter type Faces.
  8.     List 5 materials needed for printing lettering and banner.
  9.     What is Calligraphy Lettering?
  10.   Explain process of writing Calligraphy Lettering.





Package design is a visual pictorial and textual information created on the surface of a product package or container to advertise the contents and name to a prospective buyer. Most package designs on product consist of pictures (Pictorial) and text information (Textual) which are used together to communicate the product to prospective buyer.

A package is a container in which manufacturer’s products are kept as they are being passed to the final consumer. A package must be durable and presentable to keep the enclosed product preserved and arouse the interest of the buyer. Different products like liquid, gas, grain, bars, powder, cloth, plastic etc. are packaged in various forms of well-designed packages.

Some forms of packaging include cartons, bottles, can, wrappers, bags etc. A designed package like those mentioned above is a container for manufacture’s products and must be able to

  1. a)    Protect the products from damage.
  2. b)    Protect the products from being contaminated.
  3. c)     Present basic instructions on usage e.g. manuals
  4. d)    Keep the product fresh for a specified period of time as indicated e.g. milk, butter, beverages etc.
  5. e)    Arouse the interest of prospective buyer through attractive and colourful designs.

Most packages are also produced in big factories e.g. cans, bottles, plastics, cartons etc. They are worked on by industrial designers and graphic artists. They do a lot of research on the product before concluding on the best type of package to use. They work with the advert and marketing department of the company producing the product.

Other packages like light cartons, wrapper and nylon can be produced by small factories, and can easily be produced in a standard art studio of a secondary school.


For the purpose of learning, we shall be designing a light carton package for a cocoa drink called “SUNECOCO”. This product is in powdered form.


  1.     The artist decides on the size of the carton e.g. (l2 x l2 x 3cm).
  2.     The artist constructs the design on a flat cardboard.

iii.    The artist creates the design on a flat cardboard.

  1.   The artist introduces attractive colours that can sell the cocoa product.
  2.     He add vital information e.g. NAFDAC number, expiring date, uses of the product, c  content and nutritional value of the product etc.
  3.   He cut out the flat design and folds into a package, giving it a 3-dimentsional form.


  1.     Name of the product must be visible.
  2.     Colour must agree with packaged product.
  3.     Package must be able to hold and keep product preserved for the specified period of time.
  4.     Package must be attractive to consumer.


Every product required one form of publicity or the other to communicate the product identity and contents to the buyer. Package design is an artistic way of marketing a product from a manufacturer to the end user.

The pictorial and textual information provided on the package container of a product is the work of an industrial designer and graphic artist, who carries out a lot of research before creating a befitting type of package design used for the product.


  1.     What is a package design?
  2.     Mention 2 major features of a package design.
  3.     Mention steps of making a package design for a product.
  4.     State 4 properties of a good package design. 





Artwork is the tangible representation of the creative reasoning, feelings and opinions of artists. They are presented in form of painting, sculpture, graphics, ceramic etc. They can also be referred to as the intellectual properties of the artists. Therefore, since the works are tangible intellectual properties of the artists, they do have monetary value or worth.

Artists put a lot of energy and time into their work and it must be compensated by the society.


Our society is lull of different outlets for the marketing of artworks. Artists should seize the opportunity.

SHOPS: Artworks of any form can be displayed in shops as a sort of advert or distribution point for buyers to see.

GALLERIES: This is a special shopping centre or outlet where artworks mid allied items are displayed for research, appreciation and sales. It provides educational resources and gets people enlightened about art

HOTELS: Artworks cmi also be displayed in hotels, where it is presumed that people that have enough financial capability can be found. This kind of art is also known as airport art.

FESTIVALS: Artworks are also exhibited during festive period, artists need to seize the opportunity of people buying gifts for one another to sell their products.

FAIRS: These are organized open markets which are purposeful and seasonal. Artists should register and participate in fairs or exhibitions. They are profitable avenue for sales.

Marketing of artworks are usually carried out by art collectors who deal with the collection and packaging of artworks from artist for onward marketing and sales through exhibition at any available outlets.

Sources of Funding for Art Business

  1.     Relatives: An art collector can raise capital through any interested corporate organization.
  2.     Corporate Organization: An art collector can raise capital through sponsorship deals with any interested corporate organization.
  3.     Government: An art collector can raise capital through government financial assistant programme to support art business.
  4.     Individual: An art collector can raise capital through .id individual sponsors who are willing to invest in art business.

Ways of Marketing Art Products

  1.     Art Exhibition: Art works can be marketed through organizing and participating in local or international exhibitions for artist.
  2.     Network with Local Art Organization: Art works can be marketed through local organization/societies who put events, and manage art activities in arts. These bodies often support the promotion of artists and their works through in house exhibitions for their members.
  3.     Business Organization: Art work can be marketed through business deal agreements with organizations interested in promoting artist and their art works. They can organize exhibition for artists to showcase their works.
  4.     Relationship with press: Art works can be marketed through involvement of the press in writing and publishing articles and information about an art work to the general public.
  5.     Local charity programmes: Art work can be marketed through recognized local charity programmes. You can do this by volunteering to teach kids art skills and classes, during the school holiday programme. Your efforts would be appreciated and some of your art works could be sold through your contributions to the charity programme.
  6.     Advertisement: Art works can be marketed through adverts on social media, newspaper and magazines.


Art works are produced by artists to communicate feelings, thoughts and ideas to the outside world. The products of any artist creativity can be acquired through marketing/sales of an art work.

An art collector is the middle man between the artist and the buyer of an art work. He/she collects and package art works for marketing/sales through available outlets.

However, there are other ways of marketing art products through Exhibitions, Networking, Business Organization, Press, Charity Programmes and Advertisements.

Financial funding for art business can be gotten through

Relatives, Corporate Organization, Government and Individual who has interest in art activities.


  1. Who is an art collector?
  2. Mention and explain 5 outlets for marketing artworks.
  3. Mention 4 sources of funding for Art Business.
  4. Mention 5 ways of marketing Art Products.





Embroidery is the handicraft of decorating fabric materials with designs stitches with tread using a needle. Embroidery can also be explained as the art or handicraft of decorating fabric or other materials with needle and thread or yam.

Embroidery may also use other materials such as metal strips, pearls, beads, quills, and sequins. Today, sewing machines can be used to create machine embroidery. Needlework is a broad term for the handicrafts of decorative sewing and textile arts.

Needle work is all about the creative use of a needle in constructing designs and decorating a fabric or other materials. The definition includes the related textile crafts such as crochet hook or tatting shuttles.

The basic techniques or stitches of the earliest work such as chain stitch, buttonhole or blanket stitch, running stitch, satin stitch and cross stitch still remain the fundamental techniques of hand embroidery today.


The origin of embroidery can be traced to the early civilization of the ancient Egypt, Iron Age of Northern Europe and zhou Dynasty of China. The industrial revolution of machine-made embroidery started in England in the mid -l800s.

The development of machine-made embroidery on a mass production also flourished in St. Gallen in Switzerland in the late 19th century.

In Nigeria, traditional embroidery is a common craft among the Hausa, Fulani and Nupe communities of Northern part, while some Yoruba communities such as Iseyin and Oyo also engage in the practice. The craft can easily be noticed on every agbada worn by the Yoruba people and baba-n-rigaa of the Hausa and Nupes, starting from the commoners to the nobles.


The fabric and yams used in traditional embroidery vary from one place to another. The most common of the materials are:

  1.     Wool
  2.     Linen
  3.     Silk
  4.     Thread
  5.     Needle
  6.     Knife

Today, embroidery thread is manufactured in cotton, rayon and novelty yarns as well as in traditional wool, linen and silk. Machine embroidery is used to add logos and monograms to business shirts or jackets, gifts, and team apparel as well as to decorate household linens, draperies, and decorator fabrics that mimic the elaborate hand embroidery of the past.


Embroidery stitches arc the smallest units in embroidery. Embroidery patterns are formed by doing many embroidery stitches, either all the same or different ones, either follow a counting chart on paper, following a design painted on the fabric or even working freehand. The designs for embroidery are gotten from different types of motifs, such as animal motif, geometrical motif’, floral motif, plant motif, still life object motif, abstract motif, etc. The designs are always in repeat pattern, 2 or 4 times repeat pattern and alternated simple pattern.

These are the types of embroidery stitches:


Chain stitches catch a loop of the thread on the surface of the fabric, in chain stitch, the needle comes up from the back of the fabric and then the needle goes back into the same hole it came out of, pulling the loop of thread almost completely through to the back.


Buttonhole or blanket stitches also catch a loop of the thread on the surface of the fabric but the principle difference is that the needle does not return to the original hole to pass back to the back of the fabric.


In feather of fly stitches, the catching of the loop is not at right angles or its alternatives from side to side. The result is a very naturalistic looking stitch that is often used to make leaves and branches.


Cross stitches or cross-stitch represents an entire industry of pattern production and material supply for the craft person. The stitch is done by creating a line of diagonal stitches going in one direction, usually using the warp and weft of the fabric as a guide, then on the return journey crossing the diagonal in the other direction, creating an “x”


  1.     Social Function: In Africa, embroidered dresses are worn for events like Wedding ceremony, Naming ceremony, Coronation ceremony, etc.
  2.     Political/Royal Function: Some embroidered attire are specially done for the leaders or royal people in the community.
  3.     Decoration Function: Embroidered works also serve as decoration or wall hangings.
  4.     Domestic Function: Some decorated fabrics are used as bedspread, table cloths, etc.
  5.     Religious Function: Some embroidery designs are produced to promote some religious images and symbols which are affiliates to religious believes of the people.


Embroidery is an ancient craft which started in the early civilization of ancient Egypt. It is a handicraft of decorating fabric materials with design stitches with tread using needle.

In Nigeria, the craft is commonly practised among Hausa, Fulani and Nupe Communities in the Northern part of the country, which some Yoruba communities like Iseyin and Oyo also engage in the practice.

Basic materials used for craft include Treads of different colours, Needle and Plain Fabric of different texture and fibre. To create designs, various stitche patterns are put together to achieve beautiful effects. Embroidery serves social, political, decorative, domestic and religious importance in our society.


  1.     What is Embroidery?
  2.     Mention 2 basic materials used for embroidery.
  3.     Mention and explain 4 stitches used to create embroidery design patterns.
  4.     State 5 importance of embroidery in the society.






Knitting is the name of the craft that involves two needles and yarn or thread. Loops in the yarn are manipulated with the needles to make a knitted fabric.

Knitting can be explained as a fiber art in which loops of yarn are interlocked with the assistance of specially designed needles. The origin of knitting can he traced to the Europeans who have been around since the 15th century. Modem knitting can be accomplished by hand will the use of traditional needles, or on knitting machines which have mechanized the process. Knitting is a craft that is common among women, both the old and the young, just as embroidery is common to men.


There are two types of knitting, they are Weft knitting and Warp knitting.

WEFT KNITTING: Weft knitting can be explained as a process where a person works with two long needles and a ball of yarn in producing fabric or other functional materials. In weft knitting, crosswise stitches produce a fabric or garment that is loose and more elastic than that produced by warp knitting, which uses lengthwise stitches. Machines also do weft knitting and the speed is always on the high level compared to hand knitting. Some products such as sweaters, hosiery, underwear, and similar apparel are gotten from knitting machine.

There are three fundamental stitches in weft knitting:

  1.     Plain-knit stitch
  2.     Purl stitch
  3.     Rib stitch

Plain-knit Stitch

The basic form of knitting is the links or link. This stitch can be produced in flat knit, tubular, or circular forms. The flat knit is also called jersey stitch. In plain knitted stitch, each loop is drawn through other loops to the right s ide of the fabric.


This is also known as the links or link stitch. It is made on flatbed and circular machines by needles using hooks on both ends. The hooks alternately draw loops to the front of the fabric in one course, and to the hack in the next course. It is a slow and costly technique. Purl-stitched fabric looks the same on both sides and resembles the reverse of the plain knit. Because the purl stitch has crosswise stretch and excellent lengthwise stretch, it is widely used in kids and infant wear.


The Rib knitted stitch is produced either on a flat rib machine or a circular rib machine. Rib knitted fabric has alternating rows of plain and purl stitches constructed so that both the face and back of the fabric look alike. Rib construction is costlier because of the greater amount of yarn needed.


Warp knitting, however, is done only by machine and is used to reduce fabric for lingerie, dresses, draperies, upholstery, and her goods by selecting different colours and textures. Multitude of patterns can be produced.

Types of Warp Knitted Stitiches

We are going to discuss five fundamental stitches in warp knitting:

  1.     Tricot Knit
  2.     Milanese Knit
  3.     Simplex Knit
  4.     Raschel Knit
  5.     Ketten Raschel Knit

Tricot Knit

Tricot fabric is soft, wrinkle resistant and has good drapability. Tricot knits are used for a wide variety of fabric weights and designs. Some examples of tricot fabric are lingerie, loungewear, sleepwear, blouses, shirts, dresses, slacks etc.

Milanese Knit

The Milanese stitch produces a fabric very similar to tricot. It can he identified by the fine rib on the face and a diagonal pattern on the back. However, Milanese fabric is superior to tricot in smoothness, elasticity, regularity of structure, split and tear resistance.

Simplex Knit

Simplex fabric is made of fine yarn and is relatively dense and thick. It is a small part of warp knit production. Simplex fabric is used to make gloves, handbags, sport wear and slip covers.

Eyelets and other openwork can also be produced on the simplex machine

Raschel Knit

The raschel knit ranks in importance of production with tricot but it make varieties of products ranging from veilings, laces, power nets for foundation garments, to carpets. Raschel knitting is done with heavy yarns and usually has an intricate lace-like patter ii

Ketten Raschel Knit

This is also known as the chain raschel. The machine can be equipped to produce raise pattern effects in one or more colors. The fabric is finer, has a better hand, superior elasticity and cover.


Materials needed in Knitting

  1.     Knitting needles
  2.     Balls of knitting yam or wool
  3.     A pair of scissor or cutting knife
  4.     A tape measure
  5.     Knitting bag (for keeping the materials)

Listed of Knitted Fabrics

  1.     Sweater                  7.     Loungewear
  2.     Gloves                     8.     Sleepwear
  3.     Handbags               9.     Blouses
  4.     Sportswear            10.   Shirts
  5.     Slipcovers              11.   Slacks
  6.     Lingerie

Importance of Knitted Fabrics

  1.     They cover nakedness, and they are used for different events such as sports, parties, rally, etc.
  2.     It provides employment for craft men and women.
  3.     Decoration: Knitted materials also serve as decoration or wall hangings.
  4.     Domestic Materials: Some fabrics are used as bedspread, tablecloths, etc.
  5.     It promotes the cultural values and the national image.


This is an art of making cloth or clothing materials from yams of cotton, wool, synthetic fibre with the aid of a needle or slim hook. It can also be described as a method of working interlocking loops of thread into a chain by means of a slender rod hooked at one end. The hook otherwise called crochet is used in creating patterns on the cloth. Most of these tools came in form of metal, plastic and wood.

There are some also made of bones and bamboo, these are preferable by the crafter. It is believed that it gives warmth to the fingers and makes crocheting pleasurable. The sizes of the hook range from 0.4-3.5mm, others are 2.5-19mm. The desired design or pattern determines the type and size of hook to be used. A Tunisian crochet hook for example is longer and have a stopper at the end of the handle while a double-ended crochet have a hook on both ends of the handle. Crocheting is a form knitting, only that the patterns are built up by connecting threads or yarns.

However, crocheting is different from knitting in the sense that crocheting requires only one hook while knitting requires two needles, also in working style, while a crocheter has only one line stitch on the hook, a knitter would keep an entire row of stitches active simultaneously. On many occasions knitting is done in such a way that stitches are supported by the corresponding stitch in the row above which serves as a support for the corresponding stitch below but the stitches in crocheting are only supported by the stitches on the either side. Fabrics produced by crocheting tend to be thicker and requires more yarn when compared with knitted fabrics.

The materials used in crocheting are basically the crocheting hooks and the yarn or thread, a pair of scissors, a needle with a blunt point balls of wool. Other accessories may include gauge measure, measuring tapes, Fringe, cardboard templates used in making fringes an(l tassel, and row counter used for special designs.


Knitting is a craft which involves the use of two needles and yam or tread. It is a fiber craft in which loops of yarn are interlocked with the assistance of specially designed needles. The origin of knitting can be traced to Europe.

Knitting are of two types: Warp and Weft Knitting. Fundamental stitches used in weft knitting are Plain-knite, Purl and Rib Stitches, while fundamental stitches used in knitting are Tricot, Milancsc, Simplex, Raschel and Ketten Raschel Knits.

Materials used for knitting include: Knitting needles, Balls of knitting yam or wool, Scissors or Cutting Knife, Tape (for measure) and a Bag for keeping knitting materials.

However, there is another related faber craft called Crocheting which involves the use of one hook needle and only one line stitch on the hook.


  1.                 What is Knitting?
  2.                 State 2 types of knitting.
  3.                 Mention 3 fundamental stitches
  4.                 Mention 5 types of Warp knitted
  5.                 Mention 5 basic materials needed
  6.                 List 10 knitted fabric.
  7.                 State 5 importance of knitted fabric.






Batik is a process in which sonic areas of cloth are covered with melted candle wax, yarn or cassava starch paste to protect them from the colour dye solution.

It is a process known throughout the world. The tradition of making batik is found in various countries, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, India, Sri Lanka, Philippines and Nigeria; with the oldest practitioners being from Indonesia and India in the first century A. D.

Batik is called “Adire Eleko” in Yoruba land, Nigeria. The areas noted for this craft Nigeria includes Osogbo, Oyo, Ibadan and Abeokuta.

Materials for Batik Design

  1.     Plain fabric material (Cotton)
  2.     Dye, Hyrosulphite and Caustic Soda
  3.     Candle wax or starch paste
  4.     Stove or heater
  5.     Drawing Pin to tack fabric to the frame/table
  6.     Pencil for drawing pattern on fabric
  7.     Newspaper
  8.     Wooden Frame or large table
  9.     Water, Tjantine tool or foam
  10.   Dye pot or any container that can be used to dye
  11.   Rubber hand gloves
  12.   Long stick for stirring during dyeing

Procedure for Batik design

  1.     Spread newspapers on the working table before pinning the fabric to it OR Pin the fabric on the wooden frame
  2.     Create your pattern on the fabric material.
  3.     Melt the wax on the stove and paint the areas which are to resist dye with brush or foam.
  4.     Prepare the dye solution and leave to cool so that the wax will not melt.
  5.     Dip the waxed fabric in dye solution.
  6.     Spread the cloth carefully outside to dry.
  7.     When the fabric is dry, you can remove wax by dipping in hot water. Remove again to dry after dewaxing.
  8.     When the fabric is dry, place newspaper on it and press iron the fabric.


Batik is a process by which some areas of cloth are covered with melted candle wax, yarn or cassava starch paste to protect them from the colour dye solution.

Batik is called “Adire Eleko” in Yoruba land.

The areas noted for this craft in Nigeria include; Osogbo, Oyo, Ibadan and Abeokuta.


  1.     Explain Batik and mention some of the countries where it is found.
  2.     State the materials used for Batik design.
  3.     What are the procedures for Batik design?





Drawing is an age long form of art, first used by the pre-historic man. It is a skill which involves the creation of images or pictures on available surface e.g. walls, paper, skin board etc. Pen, pencil, charcoal, brush, sharp object etc can be used to make drawings on surface. There are numerous themes and topics to draw from: man made, nature, figures, landscape etc.

Man-made objects in Fine Art are referred to as still life objects because of their inanimate form. Still life objects are built up from geometric shapes, they are either factory made or handmade. Therefore, their presentation looks static or still and lifeless e.g. books, bags, chair, table etc.

In still life drawing, objects can he set up in a single form or as composition of two or more objects. The arrangement should be very interesting and there should he enough light to enable the artist observe and discover important angles and edges.


This is the drawing of natural objects as they are created by God. There are various objects in this category namely: trees, plants, shell, skull, bones, stems, insects, fruits, roots, animals etc.

The study of these objects is very interesting and every artist needs to observe them very well to bring out the natural forms. Shading techniques should be used generously in order to achieve the natural effects.

The use of the principle of art should also be involved to portray a well-proportioned and balanced form. Some natural objects bears some structural and textural movements and rhythms e.g the arrangement of leaves on a stem, or the arrangement of corn on its cob, overlapping feathers of birds etc. Artists should take note of these things to avoid rigidity in their drawing.


This is the drawing from non-living objects, artist can make studies from singular objects or a composition of objects (ranging from 2-6). These could be umbrella, cloth, chair, box, bag, shoes, basket, mortar, car, bowls, etc. Beginners are to start with a single object, while compositions should be based on a theme e.g. farm tools, breakfast, kitchen utensils, furniture etc.

The drawing of non-living objects is quite easy for a lot of students for some reasons:

  1.     The lifeless nature of the objects.
  2.     Objects arc commonly seen around us.
  3.     Less attention is needed for flexibility and movement.

However, still life drawing can be very interesting if students can represent them on their board and drawing book in the way they appear and arrange them in their right proportion and perspective.

The use of light and shade is very important in the expression of the still life object. Careful observation and attention should be given to the rigid, angular, would and flat shapes and surfaces of the object in view.

The placement of objects when drawing more than one brings about overlapping shadows which makes the composition more interesting and lively.


Life drawing can simply be described as the drawing of human being in different positions (e.g. standing, sitting, kneeling, reclining, leaning, squatting etc.) It is an interesting aspect of drawing because of the different parts of human body which could be flexible, slim, robust, elongated etc. Life drawing can also be referred to as figure drawing or life study.

To represent human being effectively in drawing, certain drawing skills or theories should be considered, such as proportion, structure, foreshortening and anatomy.


Proportion ix defined as the relationship between one part ol the body and the other. A good drawing at first glance is determined by its proportion. Every part of the body have their peculiar sizes and students should avoid exaggerating one pai I over the other.

From studies and experiments, the drawing of human figure has been standardized by using the head as a means of measurement, it should be noted that the head is about 1/8 of the body, in whatever posture the model could be. When this standard of measurement is used, young artists are assured that they have a well-proportioned drawing.

However, since most women are generally shorter in height than men, the average measurement for woman is 7½ heads.

Similarly, the drawing of children and teenagers is another important aspect in human proportion. These set of people do not have a specific measurement, since they are still growing. Artists will have to depend on their observation skills and random measurement by using their pencil to measure while drawing.

You will hold the pencil vertically against your fingers and the thumb as support, while you close an eye for proper focusing. Let your arm be stretched out properly and focus the tip of your pencil to the top of your model’s head. Measure the head from the chin to the top of the head by gradually moving your thumb up and down on the pencil, then use this measurement to determine the number of heads that can be got from the full length of the standing model. Infant may bel 1/3, children ¼ or 1/5 and teenager 1/6.


  1.     STRUCTURE

This deals with the differences in the frame work of the body of individuals. These differences occur between the male and female gender. The general lv body structure of a man is totally different from that of a woman and this should be considered during drawing in order to achieve realism.

The female structure is characterized with round head with gentle curves. The long slender neck joins the head to the torso in a graceful manner and the small shoulders slopes down the neck. The chest area is small though it’s been enhanced by the presence of two soft and roundish protruding called breast. The waist area is slender, running down to a bulky hip region for balancing. The limbs possess lots of curves and soft muscles. Generally, the female structure is succulent, fragile and rhythmic.

The male structure, though it’s not as interesting as the female structure; is muscular and angular in formation, the neck is firmly attached to the torso, the shoulder is broad and strong while the chest is flat, the waist area runs straight into the narrow hips supported by thick muscles from the thighs to the knee, then to the feet. The male structure is generally strong, rigid and erect.

To avoid misrepresentation of gender in figure drawing, young artists are advised to put these structure differences into consideration.


This is the overlapping of shapes or forms in the body. This follows the laws of linear perspective where the part of the body that is closer to the artist looks bigger than the part that is farther. Though this may go against the principle of proportion depimding on the placement of the body part to be drawn. In foreshortening, objects are shortened in respect of their usual length.

This is the study of the different parts of the body. This is very important because it helps the artist to have a good understanding of the forms and features of the body. It also helps the artist to be able to represent the part of the body in form of drawing or painting on paper and canvas. The interesting part of the body that must be studied are the head and its features: (nose, eyes, ears and mouth), others are hands and feet.

This is very important in drawing because, it speaks more about the other parts of the drawing. Basically, the head is drawn in an ova shape and the features are fixed in their respective points.

To draw the head, make an outline of an ova shape, divide the head horizontally into three parts, draw a vertical line across the middle of the head. Fix the ear in between the second and the third line, draw the eyebrow on the second line and then the eyes just below the eyebrow, the base of the nose should touch the third line. Then draw the mouth in between the third and the fourth line.





When you want to draw any of the features of the head: the eyes, nose, mouth and the ears, look for a friend to pose for you and then study them, you will likely come up with some of these examples below:


These are non-verbal messages we read on the faces of people that tell us about their labelings, their ages and what they are going through. These expressions can be depicted on paper by careful use of lines and shades e.g.

  1.     A raised eyebrow means anger
  2.     A squeezed eyebrow means puzzled
  3.     A slightly wide mouth means laughter
  4.     An elongated eyebrow means excitement

Our hands and feet are the end of our limbs and they are the most functional part of the limbs. The hand specially takes so many forms while driving, holding, grasping, clapping, tapping, pinching, waving, writing etc.

The feet basically functions when a man is walking but it can also be used to kick, spin, dance, press a pedal etc.

These forms that the limbs take while functioning are essential in life drawing some of them, are shown below.


Figure drawing is the drawing of human being either in whole or in part. It is otherwise called life drawing. Students should note that this is different from nature drawing since it involves the drawing of human beings alone.

Figure drawing requires posing of a model in different positions: standing, sitting, leaning, reclining etc. This kind of drawing requires good observative skill of the artist. In life drawing, the weakness of the artist is easily shown because the drawing may not be as realistic or naturalistic as it is required to be. Therefore student artists need to acquire the skill of observation and drawing of figures.

Drawing can be made in whole or in part, when drawing an adult, male or female in whole, the essential features of the body should be taken into consideration. This can be easily done while drawing in the nude (this is only for advanced class) but for the purpose of this class, model can be studied with cloth on. However, good observation skills will recognize the square shoulders of the male, the graceful neck of the female, the protruding bustling, the skin, waist and robust hips of the female, while the male will have flat chest, fleshy waist, and moderate hips. In general, the male posture is rigid and muscular while the female is graceful and fragile. The body of human beings cannot be given a strict formula or measurement, since humans have different shapes, sizes, posture and of course age affects and determine growth and height. However, it should be noted that most men re taller than the women except for genetic reasons. In addition, because of age and progressive growth in children, teens and young adults, the height and sizes vane.

Therefore for the full grown adult, the head can he used as a means of measurement to determine a good drawing height. Approximately, 8 heads will be good for a male adult and 7 heads for the female adult. For children and infant, the number of heads could be 3 for a start and rise progressively as they grow into adulthood.


This is an outdoor study which involves the drawing from the composition of natural forms and man-made structures within a selected area of land. This can be in the main town or in the country side.

Drawing the landscape of an area can be very interesting because of the various elements that are involved, such as: houses, trees, hills, valleys, lawns etc.

The natural placement or position of these elements against the sky and the land create a ready-made beautiful scene for the artist to draw from. Apart from having the pleasure of enjoying the beautiful scene in view, the drawing exercise is made easier since the artist does not have to stress his brain too much in tackling issues on perspective (as it is in imaginative drawing).

Unlike other forms of drawing, landscape drawing involves leaving the classroom environment to the open sky and vast view of beautiful land forms.

The mood of the day, the direction of the wind and the sun are very important if the outcome of the drawing is to be made lively and true to life.

A very good observatory skill is essential for every artist since there will the a lot of distractions (though this makes the whole exercise enjoying). However, young artists should be selective in their study of the landscape. That is why the use of a view-finder is very essential.

A view under is a simple device which can be used both for landscape drawing or painting. It can be made from a thin flexible plastic, a light aluminum sheet, or an improvised cardboard. It comprises of a hole through which an artist can see while drawing, it guides the eyes of the artist and helps him in selecting an area to be drawn.

The laws of perspective are very important in landscape drawing, since drawing is done from a composition of objects which are stationed (by nature e.g. trees, or man-made e.g. houses) at different distances from the drawing position of the artist. Therefore objects that arc closer should be made bigger and well shaded to show interesting forms and beauty while objects far away can be expressed in few strokes and tones in their appropriate sizes within the picture plane.

While going out for landscape drawing exercise, the following materials and equipment will be needed: easel, donkey, board, clips and thumb pins, drawing sheet, cardboard, different grades of pencils, and sharpener end eraser (others could be: pen, coloured pencil, markers and charcoal).

Following the procedure below the location of the landscape drawing exercise, will help you to have a good study.

  1.     Select a comfortable position for a good and interesting view.
  2.     Wear your view finder correctly to eliminate other distractions.
  3.     Do not sit or stand directly opposite the sun in order to protect your eyes and have a clear view of the scene.
  4.     Draw the picture plane, the horizontal line, and the angular guidelines.
  5.     Fill in the important objects first and take note of their shades using your grades of pencils appropriately.
  6.     Draw other light details in their correct perspective within the landscape.


Imaginative composition is an important aspect of art which helps young artists and students to make use of their brains creatively in order to form and arrange pictures or scenes in their mind. These pictures or scenes could be what the artist have seen before that is not physically available at the time of the drawing of painting exercise.

Imaginative composition is mostly done in painting in order to depict a colourful expression of the artists creative imaginations. It can also be referred to as pictorial composition.

Many topics or themes can be painted such as market scene, a bus garage, festival period, the idol worshipers, Muslim at praying ground, a Christmas party, wedding ceremony, etc.

To paint an imaginative composition, students should be aware that, there should be different activities going on in the scene e.g. a market scene will contain many people, old and young, male and female in different actions. There could be some people carrying haskel on their head, somebody pushing a wheel-barrow, traders shouting out their wares, buyers paying for what they have bought etc.

Since a lot of activities will the involved, objects are to be arranged in the most appropriate way, well-proportioned and balanced to depict natural scenery.

However, young artists are advised to start with themes that do not require too many people to avoid a conflict in proportion and perspective.

Therefore, the laws of perspective, both linear and aerial should be put in place, Beginners should start with the drawing of a picture plane, draw a horizontal line to indicate your horizon and eye level, then do a rough sketch of the placement of the objects: houses, trees, human beings etc. to portray a given theme e.g. Egungun Festival.

Objects that are closer should be made bigger and colourful while objects in the background should be smaller and pale.

The landscape and the sky serves a major role as background to the objects in the scene and should be painted in their natural forms. For example the sky determines the mood or the period of the day, a sunny afternoon will have tints of warn colours on the sky.


Shading is a technique used in accompanying drawings to create solidity and life in every drawn object. This is done by showing light and shade. It can also be used to depict depth.

Since there are different shapes, sizes and textures of varying objects, the shading techniques used for them also varies. Student artists should ensure that they move along the sketch line to give the drawing a good form. Different shading techniques are: rubbing, pointillism, hatching, cross-hatching, scribbling etc.

This is a shading technique which involves the use of the edge of a pencil to make flat and smooth impression on the surface to be shaded. Artist may also use the tip of the apex finger to spread the fine lead particles on the paper thereby creating a smooth shade.


This technique involves the use of tiny dabs or dots to create shades, part of the surface that is not shaded make up the light that complement the shade to make a good form of the drawing.


This is the use of parallel strokes diagonally, vertically or horizontally to create shades.


This is when parallel lines are run across one another thereby creating solid shades in the process.


  1.     Drawing is an age long form of art, first used by the pre-historic man.
  2.     Nature drawing is the drawing of natural objects as they are created by God.
  3.     Still life drawing is the drawing of non-living objects.
  4.     They could be cloth, umbrella, chair, box, bag, shoes etc.
  5.     Proportion is defined as the relationship between one part of the body and the other.
  6.     Structure is the difference in the frame work of the body of individuals.
  7.     Anatomical study is the study of the different parts of the body.


  1.     Define each of the following
  2. Native drawing b. Still life drawing
  3. Life drawing       d. Proportion e. Structure
  4.     Explain drawing as you learnt from the book.

3a.   What are shading techniques?

3b.   State the types of shading techniques you know.

  1.     Explain landscape drawing.
  2.     What is figure drawing?





Today, more people listen to music than ever before. Live performances have also increased in number and size. Certain kinds of music have leaped over the oceans to entertain multitudes in ways never anticipated a few decades ago. Music has become a presence and power with awesome effects. Popular music has become a global language that leaves a personal and permanent impression.

From early times, music was heard in the presence of the performer at festive occasions, at times of praise in worship, and at times of war iii preparation for battle. Each culture, thus, made music fit its own particular taste from simple drum-like instruments to the precision and demands of instruments like those in the keyboard, siring, woodwind, brass and percussion families.

  1.                 Music is used as a means of worshipping the creator, in the church, mosque, at home, e.t.c
  2.                 Music is used to express human feelings, thoughts or mood through its message.
  3.                 Music serves as a means of teaching individuals, peoples or society good morals.
  4.     Music is used in social or ceremonial functions, such as Marriage, naming, funerals, birthdays, housewarming, and so on.
  5.     Music is used in electronic media organizations for advertisements, entertainments, relaxation and educational
  6.     Music reminds people about their past events, people or things e.g Festac 1977 by Akin Euba.
  7.     Music fosters Unity, Peace and Co-operation among the people of a country or peoples of the world. e.g Nigeria yi ti gbogbo wa ni by King Sunny Ade and other Nigerian Musicians.
  8.     Music serves as a means of livelihood as it creates job opportunities for singers, composers, performers, instrumentalists, music educationist, e.t.c
  9.     Music awakens, develops and promotes creative abilities in children, youths and adults.
  10.   Music records or documents the culture of a people or nations of the world.
  11.   Music is used by the parents or the elderly to lull babies to sleep whenever they are crying. This kind of song is called lullaby e.g Omo mi o akuru bete e.t.c.
  12.   Music is used in Psychiatric hospitals for healing mentally challenged patients.
  13.   Music is used in hospitals for keeping patients feelings or emotions balanced during their stay.
  14.   Music is used in traditional festivals
  15.   Music serve as means of communication
  16.   Music is used to uplift human spirit
  17.   Music is used for group identity
  18.   Music is used as away to pass on traditions
  19.   Music is used to enhance film
  20.   Music is used for Social/Cultural/Geographic references
  21.   Music is used as propaganda
  22.   Music is used for dance
  23.   Music is used as a form of protest
  24.   Music is used as an agent of social change
  25.   Music is used to connect scenes/montages
  26.   Music is used to tell story


Impact of music on human life cannot be overemphasized. The following are common positive impacts of music to human life:

  1.     Music helps to build human relationships through soulful musical renditions e.g one love keeps us together by Onyeka O. (Nigerian female musician)
  2.     Music helps to create awareness in the mass media about issues, products, services, election, campaigns, and so on.
  3.     Music is the soul of life. Major life events and celebrations require music.
  4.     Music helps to foster brotherliness and co-operative attitude, such as we have from football fans for their sportsmen on the field.

The impact of Music on today’s Society

Music is one of the best things out there. If you think about it, listened in excess by everyone. You might get listening to music while you do homework, exercise, or even listen as you go to school totaling to an amount of hours unmatched by anything else, exposing yourself to a variation of different styles, voices, instruments, and ideas. The ide’s though are what can be troubling to some people.

Back before music attained the major influence it has today, many people were stuck. listening to classical music in theater or party while others might have created their own pieces of song, primarily folk songs. The evolution of these various genres has created a melting pot of ideas and opinions, which have been created every day.


  1.     Music can create negative impacts on youths through constant listening to negative music on sex, drugs and violence can lead to undesirable behaviors. Thus, youths imitate these negative acts due to repeated portrayals by the media.
  2.     Music lyrics are important part of music. It contains messages and feeling that the singer wants to convey to the listeners. There are many genres of music that sends out different kinds of messages. Love, peace, freedom, violence and anger are some of the messages that can be spread through music lyrics.
  3.     Music lyrics have become increasingly explicit over the decades. Songs make common graphic references to sex, drugs and violence, unlike the past where sensitive issues were cleverly veiled disturbing lyrics and the amount of violence portrayed in some modern music are becoming a great concern to many adults.


What is amazing about music is that it is imbedded within all of us. Everyone can understand it and feel something if they open themselves up. Playing music with other musicians is an incredible feeling. Some people describe it as rowing down a river together. Music can whisk you away on an extended journey. Music can make time feel frozen. Music also has the power to suggest movement. Even animals like Birds, Dogs, and Whales can understand music to a certain degree. It transcends all boundaries of communication because you can speak and tell stories to someone on the other side of the planet, even though you both don’t speak the same language. Music therapy interventions can be designed to promote wellness, manage stress, alleviate pain, express feelings, enhance memory, improve communication, Promote physical rehabilitation etc.


  1.     State 5 uses of music.
  2.     Explain how music can become source of income.
  3.     List 5 positive impact of music.
  4.     List 5 negative impact of music.
  5.     Explain the impact of music in today’s society.




Creating music


Man forms or composes music in order to express his feelings, ideas, beliefs, experiences and impressions of events or incidents of the world around him or convey messages to others. Most of the time, music composition springs out of inspirations, experiences, events, beliefs, legends, folktales, rituals, festivals, occasions, e.t.c. of a conscious mind that creatively makes use of the moments in time to compose and arrange words and sounds with a purpose. It is a purposeful moments, where the music composer uses resources within his reach to produce a music composition.


Creating music is the process and act of producing pleasing combinations of sounds, beats or rhythms and words for oneself and the audience. It is a creative endeavour for music makers, which requires appropriate resources to make it successful. However, the stages and activities of writing a rhythm or tune to fit into certain words, writing a melody for an instrument and setting words to music involve the following

guidelines, namely:

  1.     Choose the time signature
  2.     Put bar lines in front of important or stressed syllables
  3.     Separate the syllables, as you set the words to music
  4.     Have a plan for the melody, sing out the sounds to fit the words
  5.     Make good use of repetition and other devices to create appropriate m lisi c compositions.

The first thing to consider in composing piece of music is the purpose of the music, which must be definite according to the purpose of the music. This purpose of the music, determines the theme, and controls the process and the end-product that produce the music for the desired audience. Each stage and activity involves creative planning and execution to produce desired result.


There are three main stages in the composition of music, namely:

  1.     BEGINNING: The music composer should be prepared, must begin well and in an orderly manner, be accurate as much as possible in the choice of words and sounds.
  2. 2.   DEVELOPMENT: At this second stage in which the music composer puts more styles, techniques in the form of change and variations in content, rhythmic and melodic patterns to stimulate creative expressions as expected or desired.
  3.     END: The music composer must round off the music compositions and the presentations neatly in a creatively exciting manner.


Poem, text or rhythm in music composition requires rich mental capacity of a trained and gifted musician or experienced music composer. Though this expertise or skill tendencies can be developed in the students at tender ages, such students are prepared within conducive atmosphere which provide opportunities for enhancing music learning activities. Ordinarily, little and healthy children make unaware efforts at singing certain words, trying as much as possible to form them into music. it is always an exciting time for such children, who through such creative moment sing and play for fun and excitement of it.


  1.     Lyrics: E je ka sise o, ise losupa n se.


Before setting words to rhythm the focus must first be directed to the words. Each syllable must be written exactly under the note of music for which it is intended. This suggests that the notes of music have to be written further than usual, in order to reduce unexpected long syllables. It is important and necessary to develop the habit of wide spacing of words syllables whenever words are being set to rhythm or music in music compositions. This process enables words to be singable according to equivalent set sounds. Examples of words set to rhythm of tonic solfas are:


In general, inspiration can come in many forms, most often when we least expect it.

Ever wonder how a beautiful song can just flow out of a good musician? Some people are simply born with that special gift, but most popular artist really work and strain themselves to find out one good melody in thousands of others.

A composer of music is someone who writes and directs original music, used to produce various types of media entertainment. The scores written need to be technically correct in order to crate flawless performances by choruses, musicians or instrumental ensembles.


  1.     What is Creating Music?
  2.     Explain composition of music.
  3.     List and explain three stages in the process of a music composition.
  4.     Write about POEM COMPOSITION





As an art form, drama mirrors or reflects life, with its focus on human beings. Also, as a living communal art, drama “is a work of storytelling in which actors represent the characters. It is addressed not to readers hut to spectators or audience. All theatre involves participation the moment the attention is captured. An audience feels, thinks, laughs, applauds, and occasionally speak out. Fundamental to drama are such key elements as a story is acted on stage for an audience through characters earing costumes for the purpose of entertainment, information, education and the invocation of pleasure. Underlining entertainment and pleasure are the lessons that the audience is ‘forced’ to learn at the end of the performance.

A tool is a working implement which people employ in their daily quest for livelihood and survival. Drama therefore can be viewed as a key tool for livelihood and development in rural communities, particularly in Nigeria. Our rural communities are largely traditionally oriented, culturally sensitive, most African traditional festivals originated from the rural communities and gradually they are accepted in urban communities, even though there are still some that are yet to move urban areas. The rural dwellers are naturally good entertainers, dancers, singers and chanters.

Drama is a tool that could refer to knowledge or skills needed to accomplish both mental and physical tasks that seek to advance human progress and development. Therefore, one important relevance of drama in our communities is the human capacity it has to create and recreate situations and conditions that promote the improvement of human condition.

Drama therefore can he used as advocacy and practice in the social sphere dealing essentially with providing new ideas and working constantly to establish such ideas in the minds of the target audience or populace with a view to making them accept new innovations and changes. Drama for advocacy must be taken to the rural communities, all the health advocacy programme against H.I.V. Cancer, Ebola etc will be better passed across to the rural dwellers in languages they can understand better than other advocacy programmes.

Drama has several uses that fluctuate between entertainment and pleasure, information, education, spiritual re-enforcement, emotional and psychological purgation and catharsis in information, education, therapeutic and development.

In a nutshell, therefore, drama is an instrument social transformation and the reinforcement of positive values through mobilization for collective participation and action. As such, the flexibility of drama makes it performable in such places  as public libraries, museums, parks, churches, classroom situations and other locations that are environmentally friendly.

As the entertainment industry grows in leaps and bounds in the last decade, credence must be given to theatre a not just the best produced not just best of personnel but also the background training in the developmental process of the industry. However, Theatre is important not only for our entertainment, but also to build up a culture in a quickly growing uncultured generation. It has been stated by researchers that learning and problem solving skills, among other psychological capabilities, were greatly improved the longer the individuals being observed had been involved in theatre. Theatre can be a source of gainful employment for youths and even the middle- aged as well.

It is considered to be one of the most collaborative of the arts. People work together, pulling together the different arts, like music, singing, acting, and dancing, to make something bigger than themselves, lucre are many skills and talents that go into a theatrical production apart from the common idea of artistic aspects, including sound engineering, light design, construction, and rigging. This allows people of many different areas to practice their specific skills by participating in theatre. There are also gives people a sense of community and belongingness. This is part of the reason why people who are active thespians often have stronger menial capabilities than most non thespians. Along with mental capabilities, thespians tend to be more in shape because of long hours of rehearsals that generally involve dancing and other exercises. Participants of theatre also have a better sense of motivation and drive for their goals because most good thespians arc always working to improve themselves. Theatre also gives its participants a sense of culture, and a helter understanding of it.

There are many plays that are written or perceived to teach about a culture. Overall, this leads to better psychological wellbeing.

To those that do understand it, they often make it a very large part of their lives. Plays are sometimes attempts to spread awareness about problems like racism, sexism, homophobia, and other types of persecution. The playwrights write about something that matters to them as their form of expression. These issue plays help our society better function because they cause individuals to realize what is happening and take action. It builds a passion in many groups of people because they realize what is really important to them and that they have the power to make a change. Theatre is a powerful medium for exposing problems because those who understand it know how real and active theatre is in the world.

7 Reasons Why Theater Makes Our Lives Better

First, theatre does not harm

Theatre is one of those human activities that do not really hurt anyone or anything. While we’re engaged in making or attending theatre, or any of the arts for that matter, we are not engaged in war, persecution, crime, wife-beating, drinking, pornography, or any of the social or personal vices we could he engaged instead. For this reason alone, the more time and energy we as a society devote to theatre and the arts, the better we will be.


Second, theatre is a sophisticated expression of a basic human need – one might call it an instinct – to mimic, to project stories to ourselves and others, and to create meaning through narrative and metaphor

We see this instinct expressed in children when they act out real or imagined characters and events. We have evidence of theatre-like rituals in some of the oldest human societies, long before the foundations of Western theater in Ancient Greece. So theatre matters, in essence, because we can’t help it. It’s part of what makes us human.

Third, theatre brings people together

For a performance to happen, anywhere from a hundred to a thousand or more, people need to gather in one place for a couple of hours, and share together in witnessing and contemplating an event that may be beautiful, funny, moving, thought-provoking, or hopefully at least diverting. And in an age when most of our communication happens in front of a screen, this gathering function of theatre is, in itself, something that matters.

Fourth, theatre models for us a kind of public discourse that lies at the heart of democratic life, and builds our skills for listening to different sides of a conversation,  or argument, and empathizing with the struggles of our fellow human beings whatever their views may be.

When we watch a play, we learn what happens when conflicts don’t get resolved, and what happens when they do. We develop our faculty for imagining the outcomes of various choices we might make in our personal lives and our political lives. It’s not surprising that, in repressive societies, theatre has often been aligned with the movement toward openness and freedom. In South Africa theatre played a role in the struggle against apartheid; in Czechoslovakia, a playwright became the leader of a new democracy. If our own representatives and senators in Washington went to the theatre more often, I suspect we’d all be better off

Fifth, both the making of theatre and attending of theatre contribute to education and literacy. Watching the characters talk back and forth in the theatre is tricky; it requires sharp attention, quick mental shifts, and nimble language skills.

It teaches us about human motivation and psychology. In historical plays we get lessons in leadership and government. In contemporary plays, we learn about people and cultures in different parts or our own country or in other countries. Studies have shown that students who participate in theatre do better in school. Making plays together also draws kids out of their shells and helps them learn to socialize in a productive and healthy way.

Sixth, theatre as an industry contributes to our economy and plays a special role in the revitalization of neglected neighbourhoods. We’ve seen this quite clearly in our own city.

You can look at the role that the Studio Theatre played along the 14th Street corridor, or Shakespeare Theatre along Seventh Street, or Woolly in both these neighhorhoods, or Gala Hispanic Theatre in Columbia Heights the Atlas along H Street, or the new Arena Stage along the waterfront. As each of these theatres opened, new audiences ted flooding in, new restaurants opened, jobs were created the city improved the sidewalks, and neighborhoods that were once grim and forbidding became vibrant hiths ol activity. And this pattern has been repeated in cities across 11w I. Jri1cd States and around the world.

Finally, the seventh way that theatre matters – and this one applies to some kinds of theatre more than others

Is that it influences the way we think and feel about our own lives and encourages us to lake a hard look at ourselves, our values, and our behavior.


  1.                   As an art, drama, mirrors or reflects life with it focus on human beings.
  2.                 It is also a living communal art, in which the work of storytelling is represented by actors playing and the characters in the story.
  3.                   A tool is a working implement which people employ in their daily quest for livelihood and survival.
  4.                 Drama has several uses that fluctuate between entertainment and pleasure, information, education, spiritual re-enforcement, emotional and psychological purgation and catharsis in information, education, therapeutic and development.


  1.     State the various definitions of drama as contained in the book.
  2.     State the of drama as contained in the book.
  3.     Drama has been said to be an instrument for social mobilization. Discuss
  4.     List out the reasons why Drama makes our lives better.
  5.     What are the elements of Drama?





Playwrights are writers who create stories that take place on stage. They develop characters who are then brought to life by actors, and the words they write, once performed, create a piece of art that can entertain, educate and move an audience. Writing can be a very solitary activity, and playwrights may spend many hours sitting in front of a computer. Travel might he required to meet with publishers or to participate in rehearsals.

Playwrights can take a career in writing in the following fields

  1.     Stage/screen writing
  2.     Publications (Books and journals)
  3.     Radio drama scripting
  4.     Copy writing
  5.     Commercial adverts scripting


They can be hired in any of the following companies:

  1.     Theatre companies
  2.     Tv/film production companies
  3.     Radio and television companies
  4.     Advertising and marketing communications companies


Most directors are usually employed on a freelance or fixed-term contract basis. They can also be employed as artistic or resident directors in repertory companies. Some directors are also writers, designers and performers and may write, devise, design and act in their own work. Therefore a director can pick up a career in any of the following.

  1.     Theatre directing
  2.     Film directing

3      Directing of live/recorded TV shows

4      Directing of Television series

  1.     Directing of musical videos
  2.     Directing of radio drama

Companies who can hire a director either on a fixed employment or freelance include

  1.     Theater company
  2.     Television Production companies
  3.     Entertainment companies
  4.     Musical record labels
  5.     Touring performance companies
  6.     Industrial shows
  7.     Educational institutions
  8.     Film studios
  9.     Television Networks/Cable

Typical tasks of directors include pursing a career in directing:

  1.     Programming and budgeting;
  2.     Working with writers through workshops or script development schemes;
  3.     Adapting a script and, if the play is newly written, working with the writer or collaborating with playwrights;
  4.     Breaking down a script, analysing and exploring the content and conducting relevant research;
  5.     Translating and interpreting a script or musical score;
  6.     Holding auditions for productions, selecting and hiring designers, musicians, etc.;
  7.     Managing time and organising people and space;
  8.     Attending production meetings with set designers;
  9.     Organising rehearsals;
  10.   Communicating and liaising with all parties involved, including actors, the creative team, the production team and producers
  11.   Attending preview performances and preparing detailed notes for the cast and creative and production teams;
  12.   Helping to publicize the production by giving interviews and leading discussions.

There is no standard career progression for an actor. Some actors spend their whole career moving from one acting contract to another, performing similar work without gaining extra responsibility or a significant increase in pay. However, theatre companies employ actors as troupe members who are readily available for the tours and projects. These actors are paid, trained and retrained in their career. Although most actors prefer to he Freelance because it allows them to partake in various other jobs they may want to be taken for income.

Success with one contract does not necessarily lead immediately to more work and you may move between theatre, radio, television and film. You must be prepared for the ups and downs and the lack of security which is inherent in the profession.

Career progression may take the form of learning new skills and specializing in one or in branching out into different areas of performance. There may also be opportunities to move into other aspects of the work, such as managing theatre companies, scriptwriting or directing. This is more likely in smaller companies, where these skills can be combined with acting. Some actors set up their own theatre or film/television production companies.

Most actors spend time in other types of jobs and so have built up a range of transferable skills, which may help them move into related careers, such as teaching or lecturing, drama therapy or training. Some use positions as marketing or box office staff at theatres to support their acting career while working in the same or similar environment.

However, the following are some of the other acting related jobs actors are opened to:

  1.                 Television and Radio Presenters
  2.                 Newscasters
  3.                 Talk-shows anchor
  4.                 Voice-over artistes
  5.                 Drama tutors in educational institutions and drama academy,









Sound Editor

Special Effects Specialist


Technical Director

Theater Manager

Theater Technician

Visual Efficts Specialist

Wardrobe Supervisor

It is important to note that just by being an actor does not qualify you to do all of the above, special trainings and further academic pursuits will be needed to aid your progression in the various fields.


The following are the job titles theatre designers can assume as a career;

  1.     Costume Designer
  2.     Lighting Designer
  3.     Lighting Technician
  4.     Production Assistant
  5.     Property Designer
  6.     Props Designer
  7.     Set Designer
  8.     Sound Designer
  9.     Sound Editor
  10.   Special Effects Specialist
  11.   Stylist
  12.   Technical Director
  13.   Theater Manager
  14.   Theater Technician
  15.   Visual Effects Specialist
  16.   Wardrobe Supervisor

There are organizations who can either hire the above as a full staff or contract/freelance staff

  1.     Theaters
  2.     Entertainment venues
  3.     Touring performance companies
  4.     Industrial shows
  5.     Educational institutions
  6.     Film studios
  7.     Television Networks/Cable
  8.     Non Profit Organizations


  1.     Playwrights are writers who create stories that take place onstage.
  2.     Playwrights take up career in writing in stage/screen writing, publications (Books and Journals), radio drama, copy writing and commercial adverts scripting.
  3.     Career progression can take the form of learning new skills and specializing in one or in branding out into different areas of performance.
  4.     Career prospect designers can be;
  5.     Costume Designers
  6.     Lighting Designers
  7.     Lighting Technician
  8.     Production Assistant
  9.     Properly Designer
  10.     Props Designer
  11.     Set Designer
  12.     Sound Editor
  13.     Stylist
  14.   Theatre Manager etc.


  1.     Enumerate the fields of career open to playwrights.
  2.     List the companies that can hire a Director either on a fixed employment or on freelance.
  3.     What are the career prospects of an actor?
  4.     State the job hues theatre designers can take.
  5.     Mention sonic companies that can employ theatre designer on either full employment or on contract.






Choreography is the science of creating, arranging an analyzing dance movements, it can also be called “dance writing”, as it involve movement arid pattern creations and appraisal. A skilled individual who creates dance movements is called a Choreographer.

In the Choreographer’s creation there are basic elements that must be present. These includes;

(a)   Human Body

For dance to occur most scholars  that the movements must be expressed only through the human body. Therefore, the human body is the major tool of a choreographer. The size, complexion, height, weight and quality of the movement produced via the understanding of what the dance is saying.

(b)  Time/Rhythm

It is not all movements that qualify to be called dance. This is why some movements are seen as sports and others dance. Recognizable and definitive rhythms is therefore a strong criteria to distinguish movements that have dance potentials from the ones without it. To fully understand the idea of rhythm in dance is to punctuate or express a patterned combination of sounds (music) in ways that conform to the duration that defines the musical notes which are the Breeve (8 counts). Semi-Breeve (4 counts), Minim (2 counts). Crotchet (1 whole count), quaver (½ count) semi—quaver (¼), etc. So, rhythm is a constant regular and repeated pattern of sound or movement. The rhythm or time also defines the pace with its speed characteristic; which may be slow medium or fast paces.

(c) Weight/Energy

This is often referred to in dance as dynamics as it is concerned with the amount of energy expended to achieve a movement or action. The amount of energy expended on a movement helps to define and classify it among others, and to determine its connotative essence in the body of a composition. These movements are either done lightly or heavily, i.e. in carrying a bucketful of water, the amount of energy expended is expected to be different from that used while lifting a piece of paper from the floor. The same applies to movements in dance as through this process of dynamism, a dance is clearly defined.

(d) Space:

This is the environment available to the dancer to perform his or her act. It is better to see it as the unoccupied areas that may be immediate to a particular dancer (called core) or open to all dancers to use (called peripheral). Space irrespective of core or peripheral can be used in seven different modes being; three levels and four directional in outlook. Levels are; the Upper level, Medium level and Ground level. Directionally space can be used moving; forward, backward, right and left.

A Choreographer must be aware of the above elements to create dances. There are also some personal qualities he/she must possess to be effective. They are:

  1.     He must be creative.
  2.     He must have an analytical mind.
  3.     He must understand the human body.
  4.     He must be a motivator, and be patient as the Choreographer works wi h different people who may I different temperaments.
  5.     He must have eyes for good movements.
  6.     He must never be a slave driver.
  7.     He must have vast knowledge about other theatre such as props, costumes, set, light effects, etc.

Choreographic Process

The fundamental tool of a Choreographer is “body” and “mind”. Dance is essentially about movements — the movements of the human body (in part or in whole) that facilitate an emotional response from within. The responses from within can he happiness, sorrow, grief, anger, anxiety, fear, and soon. The mind is the “motivation for choreography”. The mind is intangible, c. cannot he seen or touched to bring to life its thought. A human body is needed to achieve this.

Dance movements go through certain process before it becomes a choreography. Ii also requires inspiration, determination and craft. The processes include:

  1.     Conception of the idea.
  2.     Gathering of movements.
  3.     Putting and arranging the movements,
  4.     Creating the final structure.
  5.     Adding the arts of the theatre to the movements.
  6.     Performing the dance as deviced.

Conception of the idea

A Choreographer must be able to visualize his movements before creating a structure for the dance. This conception can be influenced by a scenario, a story, his environment, nature, and song. Anything can become an inspiration. A Choreographer must be very observant. Every living thing performs motor activities such as walking, jumping, hopping, kneeling, bending and so on; dance is created from these basics. Thus, every movement is a potential dance performance. All these inspire the Choreographer’s idea, winch acts as a scope for his creation. For example: A Choreographer might conceive the theme “Bondage” to work on. This does not mean he must bring guns and swords on stage. Here, creativity is tested. The Choreographer could depict the theme “Bondage” through “Slavery”. The dancers might not be hand-tied but every of their movements will suggest they are. This is where the replay knowledge of the Choreographer is reflected.

Gathering of movements

After tile Choreographer has chosen a theme, he begins to search for movements that depict the chosen theme. To avoid contusion horn the audience, adequate research is required. For example, the theme, “Bondage” requires choky movements, restrictive dance pattern, facial expression is key as the dancers cannot be seen happy. Floor movements should he iii sync with the action patterns.

Putting and arranging movement

After gathering movement in accordance to the theme chosen, the movement must be arranged in a creative way. Just like a letter, being a non-verbal communication – it must have a beginning, middle and an end. Therefore, it is normal for him to continue to create, analyze and replace/change dance movement.

Creating the final structure:

The presentation of a cooked meal, provokes the amusement of the chosen people to eat. Movement alone does not qualify to be called dance. It requires other elements such as the appropriate application of the theatrical performance elements such as: costume, makeup, props, set, light and sound. It is important to note that the mentioned elements above must be used during rehearsals to ensure a good performance.


  1.     Choreography is the science of creating, arranging md analyzing dance movement
  2.     Weight/energy in dance is dynamics as it is censured the amount of energy spent to achieve a moment of action.


  1.     What is choreography?
  2.     State the elements that must be present in the Choreographer’s creation.
  3.     State the qualities that a good choreographer must possess
  4.     List and explain the processes of dance movement.





In the African society, dance has often been criticized as an unserious profession that is not worth studying in the academic platform. We hear comments like, “Every individual can sing and dance so, why waste mental resources to learn and critic dance?” Although. the role of dance and songs in the African society cannot be ignored as it is a dominant part of it. dance is a universal language that anyone can relate to body and soul; no matter where you come horn. For example: The lyrics of a song may be unknown to a person, but the pace and rhythm communicates the emotions, be it celebration, grief and so on. Although, we all can say a thing or two about a dance performance. must people cannot critic a dance performance appropriately. People think mostly that every dance is just for entertainment sake, and most times do not understand the message communicated in the dance. This is to show that there’s more to dance, and thus, the need for people to study dance, its techniques, principles, qualities and other things relating to dance. Dance plays an important role to an individual, government and society.

Importance of Dance to an Individual

  1.     Exercise: Dance is a form of exercise, if consistently done promotes the flexibility of the dancer. There is no difference between working out at the Gym and dancing on the stage, as both involve the motion of the body.
  2.     Healthy: Dance is a fun way to reduce obesity, maintain a healthy and burning of cholesterol in the human body. Studying a dance will expose the fact that dance is beyond entertainment.
  3.     As Therapy: Dance is a lucrative activity. The mentally sick individuals have been reported healed through dance.
  4.     Creativity: Dance broadens your creativity. It challenges your thoughts/mind. Dance is meant to penetrate and capture the soul of the audience. To achieve this, research is carried out to get and analyze the maximal point of creativity.
  5.     Non-verbal communication: Dance is a language that reflects emotions. It is a form of communication.
  6.     Source of income: Dance is a professional field that brings income into the pockets of individuals. It cuts across dancers, choreographers and dance critics. All art councils in Nigeria, and the National Troupe of Nigeria employs full time professional dancers. Also, there are numerous dance troupes/groups in and outside Nigeria who practice, propagates, preserve and document dance as a means of livelihood. All these areas in dance are lucrative.
  7.     Body anatomy: Dance explores the human body. It creates an inter-relationship between the body and movements. Studying dance promotes the analyses of the body parts, it capabilities and its limits in term of movement.
  8.     Promotes team work and spirit: Dance involves a lot of interactions. Group performances foster social relationship. It involves exchange of ideas. For example: A Choreographer needs the dancer as a tool to create his movement. In this process of communicating the dance movements, opinions arc shared, tolerance i tested as humans have different temperament and unity is achieved; that is the only way dance can be beautiful to the audience.
  9.     As academic discipline: Today Nigeria can boast of several Professors, Associate-professors, Ph.D holders in terms of academic qualification dance. This has elevated the dance discipline to the highest level of academic excellence. These sets of academics are rated one of the very best set of brains the country has ever produced.

Prospects of Studying Dance in Nigeria

Apart from the dances of foreign cultures, which demand their own technicalities to study, that of our own country is something to feel proud and confident about. There are over six hundred ethnic groups in Nigeria, whose culture, language, music, religious practices, etc. are different from one another. This shows us the variety of dances available to us.

Dance is important to the government as well in the Nigeria economy.

  1.     Source of income for the government
  2.     Foreign exchange
  3.     Cultural promoter and indicator

Source of Income for the Government

  1.   Foreign Exchange

Nigerian Socio-Cultural practices have been one of the greatest sources of high revenue for the country in terms of cultural exchanges and diplomacy between Nigeria and other countries of the world.

As discussed earlier, dance is a universal language. It is a factor that is present in all part of the world. The need to interact with other society is important and dance is not an exception. Through events such as carnival, people and organizations from other parts of the world come to witness this experience. Some organizations can also offer their sponsorship as they see carnivals as a platform to advertise their product to other part of the world.

  1.     Cultural Promoter

Being caged to your culture can be monotonous. The need to explore and expose our cultural value in our dances is important in defining our society. The National Theatre of Nigeria is a good example of a structure that has been established to promote our cultural values in performing Arts the theatre comprises of different troupes that are skilled in various dance styles of the country. It is also a medium for tourism, as tourist walk in and out of the Theatre daily taking with the tangible and intangible artistic expressions of the beliefs, customs, arts and practices of the Nigerian people as captured and documented in their dances.



  1.     Dance is universal language that everybody can relate body and soul, no matter where the person comes from.
  2.     The importance of dance to an individual are
  3.     Exercise
  4.     Good health

iii.    Therapy

  1.   Creativity
  2.     Body anatomy
  3.     Dance also serves as a source
  4.     Foreign exchange and
  5.     Cultural promoter


  1.     What is dance?
  2.     What is the major prospect in studying dance.
  3.     State the importance of dance to an individual.
  4.     How is dance a source of income to government?







Unity is the state of being joined as a whole or the state of being one or combine into one, as part of a whole. Unity is when we come together with other individual or groups to form something greater than any of us. For many people, the heart of spirituality is a sense of being part of something larger than ourselves, a unity or oneness with reflow humans and with the vast and intricate Reality in which we have our existence.

Unity is often built around a common purpose – a harmony of interests or values that create a shared identity. When people are united by shared value values and goals, they can move together, synchronizing their efforts to attain things that none could attain alone.

Unity is inclusive. It frees us from the divisiveness of prejudice. We see our commonality without devaluing our differences. A sense of unity can transcend our fear of each other. In unity, the joy of one is the joy of all, and the hurt of one is the hurt of one the honor of one is the honor of all.

Causes of Disunity in the Society

  1.   Lack of fairness and not providing the basics for the family: As a man, it is your responsibility to provide for your family, regardless of whether or not your wife works.
  2.   Impatience and Intolerance: Ones relationship will need to rally from all kinds of challenges, failures, hurt feelings and health problems. Therefore, inability to exercise enough patience and tolerate one another during trials may lead to disunity.
  3.     Lack of affection towards the family: There could be disunity in the family if the level of affection among the family members has reduced if not lost.
  4.     Lack of respect for other’s opinion and putting other things first: Remember that there’s nothing that is more important than your family and what’s going on right around you. Disunity sets in when one gives preferences to other things at the expense of the family members.
  5.     Inadequate communication: Wide communication gap among the family members easily leads to disunity.
  6.     Insincerity and Dishonesty: Engaging in indecent acts such as lying, adultery or cheating on one another among couples paves way for disunity.

How to Maintain Unity in the Society

Promoting unity is an important component of managing any successful organization with more than two members. Sharing a common belief and having a sense of a common purpose are crucial for unifying a team of co-workers, sports players or members of a religious organization. Establishing sense of cohesion can help the society team more effectively achieve their common goals.

The following are ways through which unity can be maintained in the society;

  1.                 Probity: Complete and total honesty especially in financial matters.
  2.                 Honesty: Saying the truth, behaving the truth.
  3.                 Contentment: Showing satisfaction and fulfillment.
  4.                 Truthfulness: Being just, polite and honest to others.
  5.                 Fair Play: This is ability to showing a sense of justice.
  6.                 Perseverance: One should be hardworking, persistence and endurance.
  7.                 Dependability: A leader should be trustworthy and reliable.
  8.                 Satisfaction: Being settled, being in agreement, and being fulfilled and happy.
  9.                 Lack of Envy: Absence of jealousy or bitterness or evil eye on others.


  1.     Develop a Common Goal

Having a common, clearly-defined goal lets your team know what direction you want to move in. Have a team meeting and ask everyone what their idea of the shared goal is, if appropriate. Write down everyone’s ideas and validate them. See if there is a common thread. Decide on your common goal and establish parameters, such as the date the goal should be achieved.

  1.     Arrange Team-Building Activities

Team-building activities can be an enjoyable, light-hearted way of fostering a sense of unity and cooperation. Plan a group scavenger hunt, throw an informal barbecue, have a potluck lunch or sponsor a company softball team. Have a picnic or a party in the warmer months and invite everyone to bring their families. Arrange activities, such as volleyball or tug-of-war, to make it a fun experience for everyone.

  1.     Encourage Open Communication

Encourage everyone in your organization to communicate in an open, honest manner. In order to promote a sense of unity, every member of your team needs to feel valued and acknowledged. If people have complaints or suggestions about the team’s operation or activities, let them voice these concerns in an operation without criticizing or judging. You might do this iii a public forum setting, where everyone can voice their concerns or grievances or contribute suggestions in a group, or have an open-door policy, letting team members know that they are always welcome to discuss these issues in private.

  1.   Celebrate Important Events

Celebrating important events together, whether it’s birthdays, holidays or organizational achievements, can promote a sense of unity in your organization. Have a small party to celebrate these types of events. Plan your party accordingly, and make it a festive, cheerful occasion. Buy decorations and hand out flyers to your team members announcing the party.


  1.     Problem Solving

Solve problems when they arise. Nothing kills an organization’s sense of unity faster than problems that go ignored by managers, leaders, coaches or supervisors. Attending to problems and addressing the concerns of team members lets them know that you care about them, that they are not just numbers to you but that you have a commitment to promoting unity and cooperation.

Importance of Unity in the School

  1.     Increased Productivity

When everyone is working together, things can get done more quickly and efficiently. cooperation and unity save time because workers and management do not have to dedicate valuable lime to bickering or resolving conflicts. Because workers can dedicate valuable time to bickering or resolving conflicts. Because workers can dedicate more time to their duties in a cooperative workplace, they are more productive

  1.     Improved Job Satisfaction

When arguments and bickering prevail, workplaces are not enjoyable places to be. By increasing unity among employees, managers can make their workplaces more welcoming and inviting, which increases workers’ enjoyment of time spent on the job. Working to foster cooperation can also help managers reduce peripheral problems, such as arguments and conflict, that leave employees dissatisfied or eager to leave the job.

  1.     Employee Buy-in

As they toil away day-after-day, it is easy for workers to feel like cogs in a big machine, doing a job hut having no real impact. In a place where there is unity, employees feel less like drones and more like valuable components in a well-oiled machine. Management commonly reaches out to lower-level employees in cooperative workplaces, seeking input as to what should be done or how a task should be completed. Because employees are afforded the opportunity to provide this input, they feel they have a voice in the organization and a stake in its success.

  1.     Reduction in Misunderstanding

In workplaces that lack unity, workers commonly divide themselves into factions. When a workplace is divided in this fashion, misunderstandings prevail. If management actively promotes workplace cooperation and prevents workers from placing barriers between themselves and their colleagues, they foster understanding and communication.

  1.     Synergy

Aristotle defined man to be a social animal by nature. He cannot survive without working with others toward a common aim. The prime reason to cooperate in a working environment is to achieve synergy. Achieving this is only possible when the management allows staff members to work their best at their own level. Taking time to understanding the employees and their behavior toward their reporting line helps create this synergy in a work area.

  1.     Competition

It might not always be easy to achieve unity at a workplace. It becomes harder where the nature of work is competitive. If unity is not instilled in such a system, a few individuals may flourish with time but the organization as a whole will suffer. It is thus imperative to make sure that the competition is healthy and active.

  1.     Persistence

Instilling unity cannot be accomplished overnight. The key is not to let go. The top management needs to keep boosting cooperation by talking about it to the employees and setting examples. Collaborative behavior should be encouraged. Making teams, assigning them projects and giving rewards based on cumulative performances can work wonders.


Unity is important because it allows people and groups to work together iiid achieve a common goal or derive mutual benefits. Unity exists at many levels and takes place between individuals and individuals and between individuals and organizations as well as between states and countries. Unity allows participants to exchange valuable information that helps both sides improve their knowledge bases and work in a time- and resource-efficient manner.

Unity is important because it allows people and groups to work together to achieve a common goal or derive mutual benefits.


Meaning of Unity

Unity is the state of being joined as a whole or the state of being one or combine into one, as part of a whole.


  1.     Lack of fairness and not providing the basics for the family
  2.     Impatience and Intolerance:
  3.     Lack of Affection towards the family
  4.     Lack of Respect fi Other’s Opinion and Putting Other Things First.
  5.     Inadequate communication.
  6.     Insincerity and dishonesty.

How to maintain unity in the society

  1.     Probity
  2.     Honesty
  3.     Contentment
  4.     Truthfulness
  5.     Fair Play
  6.     Perseverance
  7.     Dependability
  8.     Satisfaction
  9.     Lack of Envy and absence of jealousy or bitterness or evil eye on others.

Attitude That Can Promote Unity in the School

  1.     Develop a Common Goal
  2.     Arrange Team-Building Activities.
  3.     Encourage Open Communication
  4.     Celebrate Important Events
  5.     Problem Solving

Importance of unity in the school

  1.     Increased Productivity.
  2.     Improved Job Satisfaction
  3.     Employee Buy-in
  4.     Reduction in Misunderstandings
  5.     Synergy
  6.     Competition
  7.     Persistence


  1.     Explain the meaning of Unity.
  2.     Mention four causes of disunity among people.
  3.     Discuss ways by which Unity can be maintained in the society.
  4.     Stale four importance of Unity in the school.
Share to 10 people & get credited instantly.
error: Content is protected !!